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Article

Development of Biodegradable Bio-Based Composite for Bone Tissue Engineering: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Biocompatible Evaluation

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BioInspired Device and Tissue Engineering Research Group, School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81300, Johor, Malaysia
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Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81300, Johor, Malaysia
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National Center for Physics, Nanosciences and Technology Department, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Centre of Advanced Composite Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81300, Johor, Malaysia
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Institute of Power Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio M. Borrero-López, Concepción Valencia-Barragán, Esperanza Cortés Triviño, Adrián Tenorio-Alfonso and Clara Delgado-Sánchez
Polymers 2021, 13(21), 3611; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213611
Received: 18 September 2021 / Revised: 12 October 2021 / Accepted: 15 October 2021 / Published: 20 October 2021
Several significant advancements in the field of bone regenerative medicine have been made in recent years. However, therapeutic options, such as bone grafts, have several drawbacks. There is a need to develop an adequate bone substitute. As a result, significant bone defects/injuries pose a severe challenge for orthopaedic and reconstructive bone tissue. We synthesized polymeric composite material from arabinoxylan (ARX), β-glucan (BG), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), graphene oxide (GO), acrylic acid (AAc) through free radical polymerization and porous scaffold fabricated using the freeze-drying technique. These fabricated porous scaffolds were then coated with chitosan solution to enhance their biological activities. The complex structure of BG, nHAp, GO was studied through various characterization and biological assays. The structural, morphological, wetting and mechanical analyses were determined using FT-IR, XRD, XPS, SEM/EXD, water contact angle and UTM. The swelling (aqueous and PBS media) and degradation (PBS media) observed their behavior in contact with body fluid. The biological activities were conducted against mouse pre-osteoblast cell lines. The result found that BGH3 has desirable morphological, structural with optimum swelling, degradation, and mechanical behavior. It was also found to be cytocompatible against MC3T3-E1 cell lines. The obtained results confirmed that the fabricated polymeric scaffolds would be a potential bone substitute to regenerate defective bone with different loading bearing applications for bone tissue engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopolymer; biomaterials; biodegradations; polysaccharide; bone tissue engineering biopolymer; biomaterials; biodegradations; polysaccharide; bone tissue engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, M.U.A.; Razak, S.I.A.; Ansari, M.N.M.; Zulkifli, R.M.; Ahmad Zawawi, N.; Arshad, M. Development of Biodegradable Bio-Based Composite for Bone Tissue Engineering: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Biocompatible Evaluation. Polymers 2021, 13, 3611. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213611

AMA Style

Khan MUA, Razak SIA, Ansari MNM, Zulkifli RM, Ahmad Zawawi N, Arshad M. Development of Biodegradable Bio-Based Composite for Bone Tissue Engineering: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Biocompatible Evaluation. Polymers. 2021; 13(21):3611. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213611

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Muhammad U.A., Saiful I.A. Razak, Mohamed N.M. Ansari, Razauden M. Zulkifli, Nurliyana Ahmad Zawawi, and Muhammad Arshad. 2021. "Development of Biodegradable Bio-Based Composite for Bone Tissue Engineering: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Biocompatible Evaluation" Polymers 13, no. 21: 3611. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213611

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