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Microwave Liquid Crystal Technology

Institute for Microwave Engineering and Photonics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Crystals 2018, 8(9), 355;
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Liquid Crystals)


Tunable Liquid Crystal (LC)-based microwave components are of increasing interest in academia and industry. Based on these components, numerous applications can be targeted such as tunable microwave filters and beam-steering antenna systems. With the commercialization of first LC-steered antennas for Ku-band e.g., by Kymeta and Alcan Systems, LC-based microwave components left early research stages behind. With the introduction of terrestrial 5G communications systems, moving to millimeter-wave communication, these systems can benefit from the unique properties of LC in terms of material quality. In this paper, we show recent developments in millimeter wave phase shifters for antenna arrays. The limits of classical high-performance metallic rectangular waveguides are clearly identified. A new implementation with dielectric waveguides is presented and compared to classic approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid crystal; millimeter wave devices; steerable antennas; dielectric waveguide; rectangular waveguides; communication systems liquid crystal; millimeter wave devices; steerable antennas; dielectric waveguide; rectangular waveguides; communication systems

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Maune, H.; Jost, M.; Reese, R.; Polat, E.; Nickel, M.; Jakoby, R. Microwave Liquid Crystal Technology. Crystals 2018, 8, 355.

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