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Advances in the Growth and Characterization of Relaxor-PT-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals

by 1,* and 2
1
TRS Technologies, Inc., State College, PA 16801, USA
2
Material Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2014, 4(3), 306-330; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst4030306
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 7 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Crystals)
Compared to Pb(Zr1−xTix)O3 (PZT) polycrystalline ceramics, relaxor-PT single crystals offer significantly improved performance with extremely high electromechanical coupling and piezoelectric coefficients, making them promising materials for piezoelectric transducers, sensors and actuators. The recent advances in crystal growth and characterization of relaxor-PT-based ferroelectric single crystals are reviewed in this paper with emphases on the following topics: (1) the large crystal growth of binary and ternary relaxor-PT-based ferroelectric crystals for commercialization; (2) the composition segregation in the crystals grown from such a solid-solution system and possible solutions to reduce it; (3) the crystal growth from new binary and ternary compositions to expand the operating temperature and electric field; (4) the crystallographic orientation dependence and anisotropic behaviors of relaxor-PT-based ferroelectriccrystals; and (5) the characterization of the dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric properties of the relaxor-PT-based ferroelectriccrystals under small and large electric fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals; composition segregation; anisotropic behavior; piezoelectric properties; dielectric properties relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals; composition segregation; anisotropic behavior; piezoelectric properties; dielectric properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Luo, J.; Zhang, S. Advances in the Growth and Characterization of Relaxor-PT-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals. Crystals 2014, 4, 306-330. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst4030306

AMA Style

Luo J, Zhang S. Advances in the Growth and Characterization of Relaxor-PT-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals. Crystals. 2014; 4(3):306-330. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst4030306

Chicago/Turabian Style

Luo, Jun; Zhang, Shujun. 2014. "Advances in the Growth and Characterization of Relaxor-PT-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals" Crystals 4, no. 3: 306-330. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst4030306

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