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Article

In Situ Electric-Field Study of Surface Effects in Domain Engineered Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Relaxor Crystals by Grazing Incidence Diffraction

1
Electrosciences Ltd., Farnham GU9 9QT, UK
2
US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 02375, USA
3
XMaS Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble, France
4
Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 72E, UK
5
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin, Germany
6
Department of Physics, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028-1701, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2020, 10(9), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10090728
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 15 August 2020 / Accepted: 17 August 2020 / Published: 20 August 2020
In this work, we present a grazing incidence X-ray diffraction study of the surface of a 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) [011] poled rhombohedral single crystal. The near surface microstructure (the top several tens to hundreds of unit cells) was measured in situ under an applied electric field. The strains calculated from the change in lattice parameters have been compared to the macroscopic strain measured with a strain gauge affixed to the sample surface. The depth dependence of the electrostrain at the crystal surface was investigated as a function of temperature. The analysis revealed hidden sweet spots featuring unusually high strains that were observed as a function of depth, temperature and orientation of the lattice planes. View Full-Text
Keywords: piezoelectric; single crystal; sonar; characterisation; X-ray diffraction piezoelectric; single crystal; sonar; characterisation; X-ray diffraction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cain, M.G.; Staruch, M.; Thompson, P.; Lucas, C.; Wermeille, D.; Kayser, Y.; Beckhoff, B.; Lofland, S.E.; Finkel, P. In Situ Electric-Field Study of Surface Effects in Domain Engineered Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Relaxor Crystals by Grazing Incidence Diffraction. Crystals 2020, 10, 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10090728

AMA Style

Cain MG, Staruch M, Thompson P, Lucas C, Wermeille D, Kayser Y, Beckhoff B, Lofland SE, Finkel P. In Situ Electric-Field Study of Surface Effects in Domain Engineered Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Relaxor Crystals by Grazing Incidence Diffraction. Crystals. 2020; 10(9):728. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10090728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cain, Markys G., Margo Staruch, Paul Thompson, Christopher Lucas, Didier Wermeille, Yves Kayser, Burkhard Beckhoff, Sam E. Lofland, and Peter Finkel. 2020. "In Situ Electric-Field Study of Surface Effects in Domain Engineered Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Relaxor Crystals by Grazing Incidence Diffraction" Crystals 10, no. 9: 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10090728

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