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Open AccessArticle

What EBSD and TKD Tell Us about the Crystallography of the Martensitic B2-B19′ Transformation in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

Laboratory of ThermoMechanical Metallurgy (LMTM), PX Group Chair, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), rue de la Maladière 71b, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Crystals 2020, 10(7), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10070562
Received: 29 May 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystallography of Structural Phase Transformations)
The complex and intricate microstructure of B19′ martensite in shape memory nickel titanium alloys is generally explained with the Phenomenological Theory of Martensitic Crystallography (PTMC). Over the last decade, we have developed an alternative approach that supposes the existence of a “natural” parent–daughter orientation relationship (OR). As the previous TEM studies could not capture the global crystallographic characteristics of the B2→B19′ transformation required to discriminate the models, we used Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD) to investigate a polycrystalline NiTi alloy composed of B19′ martensite. The EBSD maps show the large martensite plates and reveal the coexistence of different ORs. The TKD maps permit us to image the “twins” and confirm the continuum of orientations suspected from EBSD. The results are interpreted with the alternative approach. The predominant OR in EBSD is the “natural” OR for which the dense directions and dense planes of B2 and B19′ phases are parallel—i.e., (010)B19′//(110)B2 and [101]B19′//[ 1 ¯ 11]B2. The natural OR was used to automatically reconstruct the prior parent B2 grains in the EBSD and TKD maps. From the distortion matrix associated with this OR, we calculated that the habit plane could be (1 1 ¯ 2)B2//(10 1 ¯ )B19′. The traces of these planes are in good agreement with the EBSD maps. We interpret the other ORs as “closing-gap” ORs derived from the natural OR to allow the compatibility between the distortion variants. Each of them restores a parent symmetry element between the variants that was lost by distortion but preserved by correspondence. View Full-Text
Keywords: martensite; phase transformation; shape memory alloys; variants; orientation relationship martensite; phase transformation; shape memory alloys; variants; orientation relationship
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Cayron, C. What EBSD and TKD Tell Us about the Crystallography of the Martensitic B2-B19′ Transformation in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys. Crystals 2020, 10, 562.

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