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Open AccessArticle

One-Pot Aqueous and Template-Free Synthesis of Mesoporous Polymeric Resins

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA
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Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268, USA
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National Engineering Research Center of Chemical Fertilizer Catalyst (NERC-CFC), School of Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Gongye Street 523, Fuzhou 350002, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(9), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9090782
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 2 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 19 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Catalytic Materials)
This work explores the novel one-pot aqueous phase synthesis of mesoporous phenolic-hyperbranched polyethyleneimine resins without the use of a template, and their utility as heterogeneous catalysts in batch reactors and continuous microreactors. Catalyst surface areas of up to 432 m2/g were achieved with a uniform Pd distribution and an interconnected, highly porous, network structure, confirmed through Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopes (SEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The heterogeneous catalysts achieved a maximum 98.98 ± 1% conversion in batch Suzuki couplings, with conversions being dependent upon reaction conditions, reactant chemistries, Pd loading and catalyst surface area. The catalysts were shown to be recyclable with only a marginal loss in conversion achieved after five runs. Up to 62 ± 5% and 46.5 ± 8% conversions at 0.2 mL/s and 0.4 mL/s flow rates, respectively, were achieved in a continuous microreactor. Understanding the mechanism of action of this mesoporous resin is a future research area, which could help expand the application vistas for this catalyst platform. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesoporous polymers; heterogeneous catalysis; cross-coupling; microreactor mesoporous polymers; heterogeneous catalysis; cross-coupling; microreactor
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Nabavinia, M.; Kanjilal, B.; Hesketh, A.; Wall, P.; Shirazi Amin, A.; Kerns, P.; Stanzione, J.F., III; Suib, S.; Liu, F.; Noshadi, I. One-Pot Aqueous and Template-Free Synthesis of Mesoporous Polymeric Resins. Catalysts 2019, 9, 782.

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