Next Article in Journal
Galvanic Exchange as a Novel Method for Carbon Nitride Supported CoAg Catalyst Synthesis for Oxygen Reduction and Carbon Dioxide Conversion
Previous Article in Journal
Fermentative Conversion of Two-Step Pre-Treated Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrogen
Open AccessArticle

Heterogeneous Catalytic Performance and Stability of Iron-Loaded ZSM-5, Zeolite-A, and Silica for Phenol Degradation: A Microscopic and Spectroscopic Approach

1
University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 34113, Korea
2
Department of Land, Water, and Environment Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology (KICT), Goyang 10223, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(10), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9100859
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 11 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 October 2019 / Published: 15 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Catalysis)
In this study, we compared the performances of three iron-containing crystalline and amorphous catalysts, that is, Fe-Zeo-A, Fe-ZSM-5, and Fe-silica, respectively, for the degradation of phenol in an aqueous solution. Catalytic activity for the degradation of phenol was assessed by heterogeneous photolysis, Fenton, and photo-Fenton oxidation. All catalysts exhibited higher activity in the photo-Fenton process. In addition, the catalyst stability was evaluated by the estimation of the iron loss and structural variations after the oxidation processes. Results revealed that Fe-silica and Fe-ZSM-5 exhibit higher catalytic activity (~100% phenol removal), while only 64% of phenol removal over Fe-Zeo-A was observed. Moreover, among all catalysts, Fe-ZSM-5 exhibited higher stability with low iron leaching, attributed to the uniform distribution of bonded Fe in the crystalline framework and narrow channels. On the contrary, amorphous Fe-silica exhibited higher iron leaching due to the presence of isolated iron species in the structure, leading to the partial involvement of a homogeneous reaction during the degradation of phenol. The structural stability of Fe-based catalysts was examined using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: heterogeneous catalysts; iron; phenol; photo-Fenton oxidation; spectroscopy heterogeneous catalysts; iron; phenol; photo-Fenton oxidation; spectroscopy
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Ghaffari, Y.; Gupta, N.K.; Bae, J.; Kim, K.S. Heterogeneous Catalytic Performance and Stability of Iron-Loaded ZSM-5, Zeolite-A, and Silica for Phenol Degradation: A Microscopic and Spectroscopic Approach. Catalysts 2019, 9, 859.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop