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Open AccessArticle

Quantitative Visual Characterization of Contaminant Metals and Their Mobility in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalysts

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BASF Refinery Catalysts, 11750 Katy Fwy. #120 and Houston, TX 77079, USA
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BASF Refinery Catalysts, Can Rabia 3–5, 08017 Barcelona, Spain
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BASF Corporation, 100 Park Ave., Florham Park, NJ 07932, USA
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BASF Corporation, 26 Davis Dr., Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
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BASF Refinery Catalysts, 25 Middlesex-Essex Tpk., Iselin, NJ 08830, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(10), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9100831
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 3 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Development of Catalytic Systems for Heavy Oil)
A new approach for characterization of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts is proposed. This approach is based on computational visual analyses of images originating from field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) studies coupled with elemental mapping via electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The concept of contaminant metal mobility is defined and systematically studied through quantification of interparticle transfer and intraparticle penetration of the most common FCC contaminant metals (nickel, vanadium, iron, and calcium). This novel methodology was employed for practical quantification of intraparticle mobility via the Peripheral Deposition Index (PDI). For analyzing and quantifying interparticle mobility, a new index was developed and coined “Interparticle Mobility Index” or IMI. With the development and practical application of these two indices, this study offers the first standardized methodology for quantification of metals mobility in FCC. This novel systematic approach for analyzing metals mobility allows for improved troubleshooting of refinery-specific case studies and for more effective research and development in contaminant metals passivation in FCC catalysts. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid catalytic cracking; FCC; metal contamination; metals mobility; imaging fluid catalytic cracking; FCC; metal contamination; metals mobility; imaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Senter, C.; Mastry, M.C.; Mannion, A.M.; McGuire, R., Jr.; Houtz, D.; Yilmaz, B. Quantitative Visual Characterization of Contaminant Metals and Their Mobility in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalysts. Catalysts 2019, 9, 831.

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