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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Fe Additives on the Catalytic Performance of Ion-Exchanged CsX Zeolites for Side-Chain Alkylation of Toluene with Methanol

1
College of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022, China
2
Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Chemistry of Jilin Province, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
3
Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(10), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9100829
Received: 13 September 2019 / Revised: 29 September 2019 / Accepted: 29 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
The side-chain alkylation of toluene with methanol was investigated over some Fe-modified Cs ion-exchanged X zeolite (CsX) catalysts prepared via the impregnation method using different iron sources. The absorption/activation behaviors of the reactants on the surface of the catalysts were studied by in situ Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) mass measurements. Modification of CsX with a small amount of FeCl3 could result in a considerable decrease in catalytic activity, due mainly to the remarkable decrease in the density of acidic and basic sites of the catalysts. Interestingly, the Fe(NO3)3-modified CsX with an optimum Fe loading of 0.15 wt.% shows improved catalytic activity and high yield compared to the side-chain alkylation products. Modification of CsX with Fe(NO3)3 could also result in a decrease in basic sites of the catalyst. However, such a change does not bring an obvious negative effect on the adsorption/activation of toluene, while it could effectively inhibit the generation of the undesired bidentate formate. Furthermore, the introduced FeOx species (derived from the decomposition of Fe(NO3)3) may also act as new Lewis acidic sites to participate in the activation of methanol and to stabilize the formed active intermediates (i.e., unidentate formate). Therefore, modification of CsX with a suitable amount of Fe(NO3)3 may adjust its adsorption/activation ability for reagents by changing the acid–base properties of the catalyst, which can finally enhance the catalytic performance for the side-chain alkylation of toluene with methanol. View Full-Text
Keywords: toluene; methanol; side-chain alkylation; iron (Fe); CsX zeolite toluene; methanol; side-chain alkylation; iron (Fe); CsX zeolite
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Miao, S.; Li, H.; Shan, W.; Jia, M.; Zhang, C. Effect of Fe Additives on the Catalytic Performance of Ion-Exchanged CsX Zeolites for Side-Chain Alkylation of Toluene with Methanol. Catalysts 2019, 9, 829.

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