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Review

Exercise and Childhood Cancer—A Historical Review

1
MOVE-IT Research Group, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education Sciences, Universidad de Cádiz, 11519 Cadiz, Spain
2
Biomedical Research and Innovation Institute of Cádiz (INiBICA) Research Unit, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, University of Cádiz, 11009 Cadiz, Spain
3
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670 Madrid, Spain
4
Physical Activity and Health Research Group (‘PaHerg’), Research Institute of the Hospital 12 de Octubre (‘imas12’), 28041 Madrid, Spain
5
Fissac—Physiology, Health and Physical Activity, 28015 Madrid, Spain
6
CIBER of Frailty and Healthy Aging (CIBERFES), 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniela Pende
Cancers 2022, 14(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010082
Received: 13 December 2021 / Accepted: 18 December 2021 / Published: 24 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric/Adolescent Cancer and Exercise)
Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of developing important adverse effects, but there is growing evidence that physical exercise could help in this regard. The present review summarizes the history of pediatric exercise oncology and the main milestones achieved along the way. Overall, physical exercise appears to be safe and beneficial even during the most aggressive phases of pediatric cancer treatment and can represent an effective coadjuvant therapy for attenuating cancer-related adverse effects.
Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of developing important adverse effects, many of which persist for years after the end of treatment. The implementation of interventions aiming at attenuating tumor/treatment-associated adverse effects is therefore a major issue in pediatric oncology, and there is growing evidence that physical exercise could help in this regard. The present review aims to summarize the main milestones achieved in pediatric exercise oncology. For this purpose, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies written in English in the electronic database PubMed (from inception to 14 August 2021). This review traces the field of pediatric exercise oncology throughout recent history based on three fundamental pillars: (i) exercise during childhood cancer treatment; (ii) exercise during/after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; and (iii) exercise after childhood cancer treatment. Accumulating evidence––although still preliminary in many cases––supports the safety and potential benefits of regular exercise (with no major contraindications in general) in the childhood cancer continuum, even during the most aggressive phases of treatment. Exercise can indeed represent an effective coadjuvant therapy for attenuating cancer-related adverse effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; survival; stem cell transplantation; leukemia; solid tumors; exercise is medicine physical activity; survival; stem cell transplantation; leukemia; solid tumors; exercise is medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morales, J.S.; Valenzuela, P.L.; Velázquez-Díaz, D.; Castillo-García, A.; Jiménez-Pavón, D.; Lucia, A.; Fiuza-Luces, C. Exercise and Childhood Cancer—A Historical Review. Cancers 2022, 14, 82. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010082

AMA Style

Morales JS, Valenzuela PL, Velázquez-Díaz D, Castillo-García A, Jiménez-Pavón D, Lucia A, Fiuza-Luces C. Exercise and Childhood Cancer—A Historical Review. Cancers. 2022; 14(1):82. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010082

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morales, Javier S., Pedro L. Valenzuela, Daniel Velázquez-Díaz, Adrián Castillo-García, David Jiménez-Pavón, Alejandro Lucia, and Carmen Fiuza-Luces. 2022. "Exercise and Childhood Cancer—A Historical Review" Cancers 14, no. 1: 82. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010082

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