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Review

Clinical Implications of Androgen-Positive Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
2
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
3
Divison of Gynecology and Perinatology, University Medical Centre Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Wong
Cancers 2021, 13(7), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071642
Received: 14 January 2021 / Revised: 18 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Targets in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a heterogeneous group of breast cancers that lack estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal factor 2 (HER2) amplifications. This triple negativity represents a challenge in choosing the right treatment, as without the aforementioned biomarkers there are no efficient therapeutic targets. Nevertheless, some triple-negative breast cancers express androgen receptor (AR), which could be used as a novel therapeutic target in such subgroup of breast cancers. In our review, we aimed to identify clinical features and proposed potential therapeutic approaches of this specific subgroup—AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer. Our findings contributed to a better understanding of the current problematics regarding AR-positive TNBC.
This review summarizes the recent findings of a vast array of studies conducted on androgen receptor-positive triple-negative breast cancer (AR-positive TNBC) to provide a better understanding of this specific breast cancer subgroup. AR expression is correlated with higher age, lower histological grade, lower proliferation index Ki-67, spiculated masses, and calcifications on mammography. Studies investigating the correlation between AR expression and lymph node metastasis are highly discordant. In addition, results regarding prognosis are highly contradictory. AR antagonists are a promising novel therapeutic approach in AR-positive TNBC. However, AR signaling pathways should be more investigated in order to understand the influence of AR expression on TNBC more thoroughly. View Full-Text
Keywords: androgen receptor; triple-negative breast cancer; androgen antagonist androgen receptor; triple-negative breast cancer; androgen antagonist
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brumec, M.; Sobočan, M.; Takač, I.; Arko, D. Clinical Implications of Androgen-Positive Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Cancers 2021, 13, 1642. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071642

AMA Style

Brumec M, Sobočan M, Takač I, Arko D. Clinical Implications of Androgen-Positive Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Cancers. 2021; 13(7):1642. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071642

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brumec, Maša, Monika Sobočan, Iztok Takač, and Darja Arko. 2021. "Clinical Implications of Androgen-Positive Triple-Negative Breast Cancer" Cancers 13, no. 7: 1642. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071642

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