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Kaposi’s Sarcoma in Virally Suppressed People Living with HIV: An Emerging Condition
Review

Current and Future Tools for Diagnosis of Kaposi’s Sarcoma

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Dermatology Department, Cochin Hospital, AP-HP, Institut Cochin, INSERM 1016, Université de Paris, 75014 Paris, France
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Virology Department, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Pierre Louis Epidemiology and Public Health Institute (iPLESP), INSERM 1136, Sorbonne University, 75013 Paris, France
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Cardiothoracic Imaging Unit, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, ICAN Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, INSERM, Sorbonne University, 75013 Paris, France
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Department of Pathology, University Cancer Institute of Toulouse-Oncopole, 31000 Toulouse, France
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Section on Analytical and Functional Biophotonics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
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Nuclear Medicine Department, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Sorbonne University, 75013 Paris, France
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Infectious Diseases Department, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Pierre Louis Epidemiology and Public Health Institute (iPLESP), INSERM 1136, Sorbonne University, 75013 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sam M. Mbulaiteye
Cancers 2021, 13(23), 5927; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235927 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 October 2021 / Revised: 16 November 2021 / Accepted: 23 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Kaposi's Sarcoma)
Kaposi’s sarcoma, a rare opportunistic tumor, is observed in four epidemiological conditions (AIDS-related, iatrogenic, endemic or classic KS). Although in most cases KS is an indolent disease, it can be locally aggressive and/or it can invade other organs than the skin, resulting in more severe presentations, especially in patients with severe immunosuppression. There is no consensus on the imaging workup that is necessary for either the initial staging of the disease or the follow-up. Future perspectives include the use of certain non-invasive imaging tools that may help to evaluate the clinical response to treatment, as well as certain new histological markers that may help in guiding the treatment planning for this atypical neoplasm.
Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a rare, atypical malignancy associated with immunosuppression and can be qualified as an opportunistic tumor, which responds to immune modulation or restoration. Four different epidemiological forms have been individualized (AIDS-related, iatrogenic, endemic or classic KS). Although clinical examination is sufficient to diagnose cutaneous lesions of KS, additional explorations are necessary in order to detect lesions involving other organs. New histological markers have been developed in recent years concerning the detection of HHV-8 latent or lytic proteins in the lesions, helping to confirm the diagnosis when it is clinically doubtful. More recently, the evaluation of the local immune response has also been shown to provide some guidance in choosing the appropriate therapeutic option when necessary. We also review the indication and the results of conventional radiological imaging and of non-invasive imaging tools such as 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography, thermography and laser Doppler imaging for the diagnosis of KS and for the follow-up of therapeutic response in patients requiring systemic treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kaposi’s sarcoma; diagnostic; staging; FDG-PET; non-invasive imaging tools Kaposi’s sarcoma; diagnostic; staging; FDG-PET; non-invasive imaging tools
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dupin, N.; Jary, A.; Boussouar, S.; Syrykh, C.; Gandjbakhche, A.; Bergeret, S.; Palich, R. Current and Future Tools for Diagnosis of Kaposi’s Sarcoma. Cancers 2021, 13, 5927. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235927

AMA Style

Dupin N, Jary A, Boussouar S, Syrykh C, Gandjbakhche A, Bergeret S, Palich R. Current and Future Tools for Diagnosis of Kaposi’s Sarcoma. Cancers. 2021; 13(23):5927. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235927

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dupin, Nicolas, Aude Jary, Samia Boussouar, Charlotte Syrykh, Amir Gandjbakhche, Sébastien Bergeret, and Romain Palich. 2021. "Current and Future Tools for Diagnosis of Kaposi’s Sarcoma" Cancers 13, no. 23: 5927. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235927

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