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Review

An Overview on the Histogenesis and Morphogenesis of Salivary Gland Neoplasms and Evolving Diagnostic Approaches

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McGill Craniofacial Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, 3640 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 0C7, Canada
2
Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ho Chi Minh University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
3
CHU Sainte Justine Hospital, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paola Ferrari and Andrea Nicolini
Cancers 2021, 13(15), 3910; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153910
Received: 4 June 2021 / Revised: 21 July 2021 / Accepted: 29 July 2021 / Published: 3 August 2021
Diagnosing salivary gland neoplasms (SGN) remain a challenge, given their underlying biological nature and overlapping features. Evolving techniques in molecular pathology have uncovered genetic mutations resulting in these tumors. This review delves into the molecular etiopatho-genesis of SGN, highlighting advanced diagnostic protocols that may facilitate the identification and therapy of a variety of SGN.
Salivary gland neoplasms (SGN) remain a diagnostic dilemma due to their heterogenic complex behavior. Their diverse histomorphological appearance is attributed to the underlying cellular mechanisms and differentiation into various histopathological subtypes with overlapping fea-tures. Diagnostic tools such as fine needle aspiration biopsy, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography help evaluate the structure and assess the staging of SGN. Advances in molecular pathology have uncovered genetic patterns and oncogenes by immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and next–generation sequencing, that may potentially contribute to innovating diagnostic approaches in identifying various SGN. Surgical resection is the principal treatment for most SGN. Other modalities such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy (agents like tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and proteasome inhibitors), and potential hormone therapy may be applied, depending on the clinical behaviors, histopathologic grading, tumor stage and location, and the extent of tissue invasion. This review delves into the molecular pathways of salivary gland tumorigenesis, highlighting recent diagnostic protocols that may facilitate the identification and management of SGN. View Full-Text
Keywords: salivary glands; salivary gland neoplasms; epithelial tumors; head and neck cancer; molecular pathology; diagnostic advances salivary glands; salivary gland neoplasms; epithelial tumors; head and neck cancer; molecular pathology; diagnostic advances
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iyer, J.; Hariharan, A.; Cao, U.M.N.; Mai, C.T.T.; Wang, A.; Khayambashi, P.; Nguyen, B.H.; Safi, L.; Tran, S.D. An Overview on the Histogenesis and Morphogenesis of Salivary Gland Neoplasms and Evolving Diagnostic Approaches. Cancers 2021, 13, 3910. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153910

AMA Style

Iyer J, Hariharan A, Cao UMN, Mai CTT, Wang A, Khayambashi P, Nguyen BH, Safi L, Tran SD. An Overview on the Histogenesis and Morphogenesis of Salivary Gland Neoplasms and Evolving Diagnostic Approaches. Cancers. 2021; 13(15):3910. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153910

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iyer, Janaki, Arvind Hariharan, Uyen M.N. Cao, Crystal T.T. Mai, Athena Wang, Parisa Khayambashi, Bich H. Nguyen, Lydia Safi, and Simon D. Tran 2021. "An Overview on the Histogenesis and Morphogenesis of Salivary Gland Neoplasms and Evolving Diagnostic Approaches" Cancers 13, no. 15: 3910. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153910

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