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Open AccessReview

Evaluation of Cognitive Function in Trials Testing New-Generation Hormonal Therapy in Patients with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Oncology, University of Turin, 10043 Torino, Italy
2
Medical Oncology, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Fondazione IRCCS, 20133 Milano, Italy
3
Medical Oncology, Ordine Mauriziano Hospital, 10128 Torino, Italy
4
Medical Oncology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 10043 Orbassano, Italy
5
Medical Oncology, Cardinal Massaia Hospital, 14100 Asti, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(9), 2568; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092568
Received: 3 August 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 7 September 2020 / Published: 9 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis in Cancer Research)
In patients with prostate cancer, the use of new-generation hormonal therapy, added to androgen deprivation therapy, requires careful evaluation of cognitive function. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the evidence about cognitive function in randomized trials testing new-generation hormonal therapy (abiraterone, enzalutamide, apalutamide, darolutamide). For each trial, we assessed the availability of both investigator-assessed cognitive impairment and disorders and patient-reported evaluation of cognitive function. Out of 19 trials, the investigator-based evaluation of cognitive impairment was available in seven (36.8%), while patient-reported evaluation of cognitive function results was presented only in one trial (5.3%). This analysis shows that, despite cognitive deterioration could be relevant in patients with prostate cancer, clinical development of new-generation hormonal drugs has not included a systematic evaluation of cognitive function.
In patients with prostate cancer, earlier use and longer duration of new-generation hormonal therapy (NGHT), added to androgen deprivation therapy, requires careful evaluation of cognitive function. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the evidence about cognitive function in all the randomized trials (RCTs) testing NGHT (abiraterone, enzalutamide, apalutamide, darolutamide). We assessed the availability of both investigator-assessed cognitive impairment and disorders and patient-reported evaluation of cognitive function. Nineteen RCTs (17,617 patients) were included. The investigator-based evaluation of cognitive impairment was available in seven RCTs (36.8%). In total, 19/19 RCTs (100%) included patient-reported outcomes (PROs) collection, but PRO tools adopted allowed evaluation of cognitive function in two RCTs (10.5%). Among them, PRO-based cognitive function results were presented only in one RCT (5.3%): in ENZAMET, mean changes from baseline were worse with enzalutamide than with placebo, but deterioration-free survival favored enzalutamide. Despite cognitive deterioration could be relevant, clinical development of NGHT has not included a systematic evaluation of cognitive function. Assessment by investigators is at risk of underreporting, and commonly used PROs do not allow proper cognitive function analysis. Furthermore, the methodology of analysis can jeopardize the interpretation of results. Although direct comparisons are scanty, there could be differences between different NGHTs. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognitive function; prostate cancer; abiraterone; enzalutamide; apalutamide; darolutamide cognitive function; prostate cancer; abiraterone; enzalutamide; apalutamide; darolutamide
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Marandino, L.; Vignani, F.; Buttigliero, C.; Gamba, T.; Necchi, A.; Tucci, M.; Di Maio, M. Evaluation of Cognitive Function in Trials Testing New-Generation Hormonal Therapy in Patients with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review. Cancers 2020, 12, 2568.

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