Advanced prostate cancers that progress to tumor metastases are often considered incurable or difficult to treat. The etiology of prostate cancers is multi-factorial. Among other factors, de-regulation of calcium signals in prostate tumor cells mediates several pathological dysfunctions associated with tumor progression. Calcium plays a relevant role on tumor cell death, proliferation, motility-invasion and tumor metastasis. Calcium controls molecular factors and signaling pathways involved in the development of prostate cancer and its progression. Such factors and pathways include calcium channels and calcium-binding proteins. Nevertheless, the involvement of calcium signaling on prostate cancer predisposition for bone tropism has been relatively unexplored. In this regard, a diversity of mechanisms triggers transient accumulation of intracellular calcium in prostate cancer cells, potentially favoring bone metastases development. New therapies for the treatment of prostate cancer include compounds characterized by potent and specific actions that target calcium channels/transporters or pumps. These novel drugs for prostate cancer treatment encompass calcium-ATPase inhibitors, voltage-gated calcium channel inhibitors, transient receptor potential (TRP) channel regulators or Orai inhibitors. This review details the latest results that have evaluated the relationship between calcium signaling and progression of prostate cancer, as well as potential therapies aiming to modulate calcium signaling in prostate tumor progression.
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