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Role of Calcium Signaling in Prostate Cancer Progression: Effects on Cancer Hallmarks and Bone Metastatic Mechanisms

1
Bone Physiopathology laboratory, Applied Molecular Medicine Institute (IMMA), Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Campus Monteprincipe, 28925 Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain
2
Departamento de Ciencias Médicas Básicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Campus Monteprincipe, 28925 Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(5), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051071
Received: 29 March 2020 / Revised: 19 April 2020 / Accepted: 23 April 2020 / Published: 25 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Calcium Signaling in Cancer Cells)
Advanced prostate cancers that progress to tumor metastases are often considered incurable or difficult to treat. The etiology of prostate cancers is multi-factorial. Among other factors, de-regulation of calcium signals in prostate tumor cells mediates several pathological dysfunctions associated with tumor progression. Calcium plays a relevant role on tumor cell death, proliferation, motility-invasion and tumor metastasis. Calcium controls molecular factors and signaling pathways involved in the development of prostate cancer and its progression. Such factors and pathways include calcium channels and calcium-binding proteins. Nevertheless, the involvement of calcium signaling on prostate cancer predisposition for bone tropism has been relatively unexplored. In this regard, a diversity of mechanisms triggers transient accumulation of intracellular calcium in prostate cancer cells, potentially favoring bone metastases development. New therapies for the treatment of prostate cancer include compounds characterized by potent and specific actions that target calcium channels/transporters or pumps. These novel drugs for prostate cancer treatment encompass calcium-ATPase inhibitors, voltage-gated calcium channel inhibitors, transient receptor potential (TRP) channel regulators or Orai inhibitors. This review details the latest results that have evaluated the relationship between calcium signaling and progression of prostate cancer, as well as potential therapies aiming to modulate calcium signaling in prostate tumor progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: Calcium; prostate cancer; cell signaling; therapies; cancer progression Calcium; prostate cancer; cell signaling; therapies; cancer progression
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Ardura, J.A.; Álvarez-Carrión, L.; Gutiérrez-Rojas, I.; Alonso, V. Role of Calcium Signaling in Prostate Cancer Progression: Effects on Cancer Hallmarks and Bone Metastatic Mechanisms. Cancers 2020, 12, 1071.

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