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Open AccessArticle

Solving the Time- and Frequency-Multiplexed Problem of Constrained Radiofrequency Induced Hyperthermia

1
MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany
2
Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany
3
Clinic for Radiation Oncology, Charité Universitätsmedizin, 13125 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(5), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051072
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 21 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 25 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hyperthermia-based Anticancer Treatments)
Targeted radiofrequency (RF) heating induced hyperthermia has a wide range of applications, ranging from adjunct anti-cancer treatment to localized release of drugs. Focal RF heating is usually approached using time-consuming nonconvex optimization procedures or approximations, which significantly hampers its application. To address this limitation, this work presents an algorithm that recasts the problem as a semidefinite program and quickly solves it to global optimality, even for very large (human voxel) models. The target region and a desired RF power deposition pattern as well as constraints can be freely defined on a voxel level, and the optimum application RF frequencies and time-multiplexed RF excitations are automatically determined. 2D and 3D example applications conducted for test objects containing pure water (rtarget = 19 mm, frequency range: 500–2000 MHz) and for human brain models including brain tumors of various size (r1 = 20 mm, r2 = 30 mm, frequency range 100–1000 MHz) and locations (center, off-center, disjoint) demonstrate the applicability and capabilities of the proposed approach. Due to its high performance, the algorithm can solve typical clinical problems in a few seconds, making the presented approach ideally suited for interactive hyperthermia treatment planning, thermal dose and safety management, and the design, rapid evaluation, and comparison of RF applicator configurations. View Full-Text
Keywords: RF hyperthermia; thermal intervention; field shaping; field focusing; RF applicator; hyperthermia treatment planning; thermal magnetic resonance; semidefinite programming RF hyperthermia; thermal intervention; field shaping; field focusing; RF applicator; hyperthermia treatment planning; thermal magnetic resonance; semidefinite programming
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuehne, A.; Oberacker, E.; Waiczies, H.; Niendorf, T. Solving the Time- and Frequency-Multiplexed Problem of Constrained Radiofrequency Induced Hyperthermia. Cancers 2020, 12, 1072.

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