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Cancers 2019, 11(4), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040533

The Interplay of Autophagy and Tumor Microenvironment in Colorectal Cancer—Ways of Enhancing Immunotherapy Action

1
Molecular Oncology Unit, Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
2
First Department of Internal Medicine, ‘Laiko’ General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy, Tumor Microenvironment and Survival Signaling)
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Abstract

Autophagy as a primary homeostatic and catabolic process is responsible for the degradation and recycling of proteins and cellular components. The mechanism of autophagy has a crucial role in several cellular functions and its dysregulation is associated with tumorigenesis, tumor–stroma interactions, and resistance to cancer therapy. A growing body of evidence suggests that autophagy is also a key regulator of the tumor microenvironment and cellular immune response in different types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Furthermore, autophagy is responsible for initiating the immune response especially when it precedes cell death. However, the role of autophagy in CRC and the tumor microenvironment remains controversial. In this review, we identify the role of autophagy in tumor microenvironment regulation and the specific mechanism by which autophagy is implicated in immune responses during CRC tumorigenesis and the context of anticancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Autophagy; colorectal cancer; immunotherapy; tumor stroma; tumor microenvironment Autophagy; colorectal cancer; immunotherapy; tumor stroma; tumor microenvironment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Koustas, E.; Sarantis, P.; Kyriakopoulou, G.; Papavassiliou, A.G.; Karamouzis, M.V. The Interplay of Autophagy and Tumor Microenvironment in Colorectal Cancer—Ways of Enhancing Immunotherapy Action. Cancers 2019, 11, 533.

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