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Cancers 2019, 11(4), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040532

The Evolving Landscape of Cancer Stem Cells and Ways to Overcome Cancer Heterogeneity

1
The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0071, Japan
2
Clinical and Translational Research Center Keio University Hospital, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
3
BioThinkTank Co. Ltd. 4-10-1-E1706 Minatomirai, Nishi-ku Yokohama, Kanagawa 220-0012, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cancer Stem Cell Research)
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Abstract

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) with therapeutic resistance and plasticity can be found in various types of tumors and are recognized as attractive targets for treatments. As CSCs are derived from tissue stem or progenitor cells, and/or dedifferentiated mature cells, their signal transduction pathways are critical in the regulation of CSCs; chronic inflammation causes the accumulation of genetic mutations and aberrant epigenetic changes in these cells, potentially leading to the production of CSCs. However, the nature of CSCs appears to be stronger than the treatments of the past. To improve the treatments targeting CSCs, it is important to inhibit several molecules on the signaling cascades in CSCs simultaneously, and to overcome cancer heterogeneity caused by the plasticity. To select suitable target molecules for CSCs, we have to explore the landscape of CSCs from the perspective of cancer stemness and signaling systems, based on the curated databases of cancer-related genes. We have been studying the integration of a broad range of knowledge and experiences from cancer biology, and also from other interdisciplinary basic sciences. In this review, we have introduced the concept of developing novel strategies targeting CSCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer stemness; signaling cascades; in silico approach; cancer heterogeneity; oligonucleotide therapeutics cancer stemness; signaling cascades; in silico approach; cancer heterogeneity; oligonucleotide therapeutics
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Taniguchi, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Natori, Y. The Evolving Landscape of Cancer Stem Cells and Ways to Overcome Cancer Heterogeneity. Cancers 2019, 11, 532.

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