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Cancers 2019, 11(4), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040511

LC/MS-Based Polar Metabolite Profiling Identified Unique Biomarker Signatures for Cervical Cancer and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Using Global and Targeted Metabolomics

1
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, National Cancer Center, Madu-dong, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 10408, Korea
2
Integrated Metabolomics Research Group, Western Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 03759, Korea
3
Center for Uterine Cancer, National Cancer Center, Madu-dong, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 10408, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract

Cervical cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers among females worldwide. Therefore, it is important to discover new biomarkers for early diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer, preferably non-invasive ones. In the present study, we aimed to identify unique metabolic signatures for CINs and cervical cancers using global and targeted metabolomic profiling. Plasma samples (69 normal, 55 CIN1, 42 CIN2/3, and 60 cervical cancer) were examined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Metabolic pathways were analyzed using the integrated web-based tool MetaboAnalyst. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the combined association of metabolites and human papillomavirus (HPV) status with the risk of cervical carcinogenesis. A total of 28 metabolites exhibiting discriminating levels among normal, CIN, and cervical cancer patients (Kruskal–Wallis test p < 0.05) were identified in the global profiling analysis. The pathway analysis showed significantly altered alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolic pathways (FDR p-value < 0.05) in both the discovery and validation phases. Seven metabolites (AMP, aspartate, glutamate, hypoxanthine, lactate, proline, and pyroglutamate) were discriminated between CINs and cervical cancer versus normal (area under the curve (AUC) value > 0.8). The levels of these metabolites were significantly high in patients versus normal (p < 0.0001) and were associated with increased risk of developing CIN2/3 and cervical cancer. Additionally, elevated levels of the seven metabolites combined with positive HPV status were correlated with substantial risk of cancer progression. These results demonstrated that metabolomics profiling is capable of distinguishing CINs and cervical cancers from normal and highlighted potential biomarkers for the early detection of cervical carcinogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarker; cervical cancer; human papillomavirus; metabolomic analysis; metabolic pathways; plasma profiling biomarker; cervical cancer; human papillomavirus; metabolomic analysis; metabolic pathways; plasma profiling
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Khan, I.; Nam, M.; Kwon, M.; Seo, S.-S.; Jung, S.; Han, J.S.; Hwang, G.-S.; Kim, M.K. LC/MS-Based Polar Metabolite Profiling Identified Unique Biomarker Signatures for Cervical Cancer and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Using Global and Targeted Metabolomics. Cancers 2019, 11, 511.

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