Next Article in Journal
LC/MS-Based Polar Metabolite Profiling Identified Unique Biomarker Signatures for Cervical Cancer and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Using Global and Targeted Metabolomics
Previous Article in Journal
Development of a New Nomogram Including Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Survival in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Transarterial Chemoembolization
Previous Article in Special Issue
Interventional Techniques for the Management of Cancer-Related Pain: Clinical and Critical Aspects
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Cancers 2019, 11(4), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040510

Cancer Pain Assessment and Classification

Palliative Care, Pain Therapy and Rehabilitation Department, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Pains)
  |  
PDF [644 KB, uploaded 10 April 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

More than half of patients affected by cancer experience pain of moderate-to-severe intensity, often in multiple sites, and of different etiologies and underlying mechanisms. The heterogeneity of pain mechanisms is expressed with the fluctuating nature of cancer pain intensity and clinical characteristics. Traditional ways of classifying pain in the cancer population include distinguishing pain etiology, clinical characteristics related to pain and the patient, pathophysiology, and the use of already validated classification systems. Concepts like breakthrough, nociceptive, neuropathic, and mixed pain are very important in the assessment of pain in this population of patients. When dealing with patients affected by cancer pain it is also very important to be familiar to the characteristics of specific pain syndromes that are usually encountered. In this article we review methods presently applied for classifying cancer pain highlighting the importance of an accurate clinical evaluation in providing adequate analgesia to patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer pain; pain assessment; pain classification; breakthrough pain; neuropathic pain; pain syndromes cancer pain; pain assessment; pain classification; breakthrough pain; neuropathic pain; pain syndromes
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Caraceni, A.; Shkodra, M. Cancer Pain Assessment and Classification. Cancers 2019, 11, 510.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top