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An Assay Using Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance and Gold Nanorods Functionalized with Aptamers to Sense the Cytochrome-c Released from Apoptotic Cancer Cells for Anti-Cancer Drug Effect Determination

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
2
School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2017, 8(11), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8110338
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based Sensors)
To determine the degree of cancer cell killing after treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs, we have developed a sensitive platform using localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and aptamers to detect the extracellular cytochrome-c (cyto-c), a mitochondrial protein released from cancer cells for the induction of apoptosis after treatment, to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy. In this assay, a short single-stranded 76-mer DNA aptamer with a unique DNA sequence, which binds towards the cyto-c like an antibody with a high binding affinity and specificity, was conjugated to gold nanorods (AuNR) for LSPR sensing. Practically, cyto-c was first grabbed by a capturing antibody functionalized on the surface of micro-magnetic particles (MMPs). Subsequently, the AuNR-conjugated aptamer was added to form a complex sandwich structure with cyto-c (i.e., (MMP-Ab)-(cyto-c)-(AuNR-aptamer)) after washing away the non-target impurities, such as serum residues and intracellular contents, in a microfluidic chip. The sandwich complex led to formation of AuNR aggregates, which changed the LSPR signals in relation to the amount of cyto-c. With the LSPR signal enhancement effects from the AuNRs, the detection limit of cyto-c, sparked in human serum or culture medium, was found to be 0.1 ng/mL in our platform and the whole sensing process could be completed within two hours. Moreover, we have applied this assay to monitor the apoptosis in leukemia cancer cells induced by a potential anti-cancer agent phenylarsine oxide. View Full-Text
Keywords: aptamer; gold-nanorod; localized surface plasmon resonance aptamer; gold-nanorod; localized surface plasmon resonance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Loo, J.F.-C.; Lau, P.-M.; Kong, S.-K.; Ho, H.-P. An Assay Using Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance and Gold Nanorods Functionalized with Aptamers to Sense the Cytochrome-c Released from Apoptotic Cancer Cells for Anti-Cancer Drug Effect Determination. Micromachines 2017, 8, 338. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8110338

AMA Style

Loo JF-C, Lau P-M, Kong S-K, Ho H-P. An Assay Using Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance and Gold Nanorods Functionalized with Aptamers to Sense the Cytochrome-c Released from Apoptotic Cancer Cells for Anti-Cancer Drug Effect Determination. Micromachines. 2017; 8(11):338. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8110338

Chicago/Turabian Style

Loo, Jacky F.-C., Pui-Man Lau, Siu-Kai Kong, and Ho-Pui Ho. 2017. "An Assay Using Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance and Gold Nanorods Functionalized with Aptamers to Sense the Cytochrome-c Released from Apoptotic Cancer Cells for Anti-Cancer Drug Effect Determination" Micromachines 8, no. 11: 338. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8110338

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