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Erratum published on 7 September 2021, see Micromachines 2021, 12(9), 1078.
Article

Laser Surface Modification of TC21 (α/β) Titanium Alloy Using a Direct Energy Deposition (DED) Process

1
Department of Engineering Applications of Laser, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University, Giza 12611, Egypt
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tabbin Institute for Metallurgical Studies (TIMS), Cairo-Egypt, Helwan 11731, Egypt
3
Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12611, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Ancona
Micromachines 2021, 12(7), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12070739
Received: 29 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Based Micromachining, Structuring, and Polishing)
The TC21 alloy (Ti-6Al-3Mo-1.9Nb-2.2Sn-2.2Zr-1.5Cr) is considered a new titanium alloy that replaced the commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy in aerospace applications due to its higher operating temperatures. Recently, direct energy deposition was usually applied to enhance the hardness, tribological properties, and corrosion resistance for many alloys. Consequently, this study was performed by utilizing direct energy deposition (DED) on TC21 (α/β) titanium alloy to improve their mechanical properties by depositing a mixture powder of stellite-6 (Co-based alloy) and tungsten carbides particles (WC). Different WC percentages were applied to the surfaces of TC21 using a 4 kW continuous-wave fiber-coupled diode laser at a constant powder feeding rate. This study aimed to obtain a uniform distribution of hard surfaces containing undissolved WC particles that were dispersed in a Co-based alloy matrix to enhance the wear resistance of such alloys. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) were used to characterize the deposited layers. New constituents and intermetallic compounds were found in the deposited layers. The microhardness was measured for all deposited layers and wear resistance was evaluated at room temperature using a dry sliding ball during a disk abrasion test. The results showed that the microstructure of the deposited layer consisted of a hypereutectic structure and undissolved tungsten carbide dispersed in the matrix of the Co-based alloy that depended on the WC weight fraction. The microhardness values increased with increasing WC weight fraction in the deposited powder by more than threefold as compared with the as-cast samples. A notable enhancement of wear resistance of the deposited layers was thus achieved. View Full-Text
Keywords: TC21 titanium alloy; direct energy deposition (DED); microstructure; stellite-6; tungsten carbides particles (WC); microhardness; wear resistance TC21 titanium alloy; direct energy deposition (DED); microstructure; stellite-6; tungsten carbides particles (WC); microhardness; wear resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elshazli, A.M.; Elshaer, R.N.; Hussein, A.H.A.; Al-Sayed, S.R. Laser Surface Modification of TC21 (α/β) Titanium Alloy Using a Direct Energy Deposition (DED) Process. Micromachines 2021, 12, 739. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12070739

AMA Style

Elshazli AM, Elshaer RN, Hussein AHA, Al-Sayed SR. Laser Surface Modification of TC21 (α/β) Titanium Alloy Using a Direct Energy Deposition (DED) Process. Micromachines. 2021; 12(7):739. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12070739

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elshazli, Ahmed Magdi, Ramadan N. Elshaer, Abdel Hamid Ahmed Hussein, and Samar Reda Al-Sayed. 2021. "Laser Surface Modification of TC21 (α/β) Titanium Alloy Using a Direct Energy Deposition (DED) Process" Micromachines 12, no. 7: 739. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12070739

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