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Open AccessArticle

Automated Pre-Analytic Processing of Whole Saliva Using Magnet-Beating for Point-of-Care Protein Biomarker Analysis

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Hahn-Schickard, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
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Laboratory for MEMS Applications, IMTEK—Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
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Section of Periodontology and Dental Prevention, Division of Oral Diseases, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Alfred Nobels Allé 8, 14104 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
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BioVendor—Laboratorní medicína a.s., Research & Diagnostic Products Division, Karasek 1767/1, Reckovice, 62100 Brno, Czech Republic
5
University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Faculty of Pharmacy, Palackeho trida 1946/1, 61242 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120833
Received: 7 November 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microsystems for Point-of-Care Testing)
Saliva offers many advantages for point-of-care (PoC) diagnostic applications due to non-invasive, easy, and cost-effective methods of collection. However, the complex matrix with its non-Newtonian behavior and high viscosity poses handling challenges. Several tedious and long pre-analytic steps, incompatible with PoC use, are required to liquefy and homogenize saliva samples before protein analysis can be performed. We apply magnet-beating to reduce hands-on time and to simplify sample preparation. A magnet in a chamber containing the whole saliva is actuated inside a centrifugal microfluidic cartridge by the interplay of centrifugal and magnetic forces. Rigorous mixing, which homogenizes the saliva sample, is then initiated. Consequently, fewer manual steps are required to introduce the whole saliva into the cartridge. After 4 min of magnet-beating, the processed sample can be used for protein analysis. The viscosity of whole saliva has been reduced from 10.4 to 2.3 mPa s. Immunoassay results after magnet-beating for three salivary periodontal markers (MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1) showed a linear correlation with a slope of 0.99 when compared to results of reference method treated samples. Conclusively, magnet-beating has been shown to be a suitable method for the pre-analytic processing of whole saliva for fully automated PoC protein analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: point-of-care; pre-analytics; protein biomarkers; magnet-beating; whole saliva; diagnostics; immunoassay; ELISA; centrifugal microfluidics point-of-care; pre-analytics; protein biomarkers; magnet-beating; whole saliva; diagnostics; immunoassay; ELISA; centrifugal microfluidics
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Johannsen, B.; Müller, L.; Baumgartner, D.; Karkossa, L.; Früh, S.M.; Bostanci, N.; Karpíšek, M.; Zengerle, R.; Paust, N.; Mitsakakis, K. Automated Pre-Analytic Processing of Whole Saliva Using Magnet-Beating for Point-of-Care Protein Biomarker Analysis. Micromachines 2019, 10, 833.

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