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Oxidative Stress-Related Transcription Factors in the Regulation of Secondary Metabolism

by Sung-Yong Hong 1,†, Ludmila V. Roze 1,† and John E. Linz 1,2,3,4,*
1
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
3
National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
4
Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2013, 5(4), 683-702; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins5040683
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 1 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 18 April 2013
There is extensive and unequivocal evidence that secondary metabolism in filamentous fungi and plants is associated with oxidative stress. In support of this idea, transcription factors related to oxidative stress response in yeast, plants, and fungi have been shown to participate in controlling secondary metabolism. Aflatoxin biosynthesis, one model of secondary metabolism, has been demonstrated to be triggered and intensified by reactive oxygen species buildup. An oxidative stress-related bZIP transcription factor AtfB is a key player in coordinate expression of antioxidant genes and genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Recent findings from our laboratory provide strong support for a regulatory network comprised of at least four transcription factors that bind in a highly coordinated and timely manner to promoters of the target genes and regulate their expression. In this review, we will focus on transcription factors involved in co-regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis with oxidative stress response in aspergilli, and we will discuss the relationship of known oxidative stress-associated transcription factors and secondary metabolism in other organisms. We will also talk about transcription factors that are involved in oxidative stress response, but have not yet been demonstrated to be affiliated with secondary metabolism. The data support the notion that secondary metabolism provides a secondary line of defense in cellular response to oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin; aspergilli; oxidative stress; secondary metabolism; stress activated signaling pathway; transcription factor aflatoxin; aspergilli; oxidative stress; secondary metabolism; stress activated signaling pathway; transcription factor
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Hong, S.-Y.; Roze, L.V.; Linz, J.E. Oxidative Stress-Related Transcription Factors in the Regulation of Secondary Metabolism. Toxins 2013, 5, 683-702.

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