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Contribution of Gut Microbiota-Derived Uremic Toxins to the Cardiovascular System Mineralization
Article

Association of Sarcopenia and Gut Microbiota Composition in Older Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease, Investigation of the Interactions with Uremic Toxins, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

1
Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milano, Italy
2
Centro di Ricerche Biotecnologiche, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 26100 Cremona, Italy
3
Laboratory Medicine and Clinical Biochemical Analysis, Ospedale San Matteo di Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
4
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(7), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13070472
Received: 4 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 2 July 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on the Uremic Toxin Targeting Mechanism)
Sarcopenia is a prevalent condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined gut microbiota (gMB) composition in CKD patients with or without sarcopenia. Furthermore, we investigated whether in these patients, there was any association between gMB, uremic toxins, inflammation and oxidative stress. We analyzed gMB composition, uremic toxins (indoxyl sulphate and p-cresyl sulphate), inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, interleukin 17, interleukin 12 p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and fetuin-A) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) of 64 elderly CKD patients (10 < eGFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2, not on dialysis) categorized as sarcopenic and not-sarcopenic. Sarcopenia was defined according to European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 criteria. Sarcopenic patients had a greater abundance of the Micrococcaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae families and of Megasphaera, Rothia, Veillonella, Akkermansia and Coprobacillus genera. They had a lower abundance of the Gemellaceae and Veillonellaceae families and of Acidaminococcus and Gemella genera. GMB was associated with uremic toxins, inflammatory cytokines and MDA. However, uremic toxins, inflammatory cytokines and MDA were not different in sarcopenic compared with not-sarcopenic individuals, except for interleukin 10, which was higher in not-sarcopenic patients. In older CKD patients, gMB was different in sarcopenic than in not-sarcopenic ones. Several bacterial families and genera were associated with uremic toxins and inflammatory cytokines, although none of these latter substantially different in sarcopenic versus not-sarcopenic patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; sarcopenia; gut microbiota; inflammation; oxidative stress chronic kidney disease; sarcopenia; gut microbiota; inflammation; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Margiotta, E.; Caldiroli, L.; Callegari, M.L.; Miragoli, F.; Zanoni, F.; Armelloni, S.; Rizzo, V.; Messa, P.; Vettoretti, S. Association of Sarcopenia and Gut Microbiota Composition in Older Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease, Investigation of the Interactions with Uremic Toxins, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress. Toxins 2021, 13, 472. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13070472

AMA Style

Margiotta E, Caldiroli L, Callegari ML, Miragoli F, Zanoni F, Armelloni S, Rizzo V, Messa P, Vettoretti S. Association of Sarcopenia and Gut Microbiota Composition in Older Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease, Investigation of the Interactions with Uremic Toxins, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress. Toxins. 2021; 13(7):472. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13070472

Chicago/Turabian Style

Margiotta, Elisabetta, Lara Caldiroli, Maria L. Callegari, Francesco Miragoli, Francesca Zanoni, Silvia Armelloni, Vittoria Rizzo, Piergiorgio Messa, and Simone Vettoretti. 2021. "Association of Sarcopenia and Gut Microbiota Composition in Older Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease, Investigation of the Interactions with Uremic Toxins, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress" Toxins 13, no. 7: 472. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13070472

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