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Direct and Competitive Optical Grating Immunosensors for Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxin Zearalenone
Open AccessArticle

An Optical Planar Waveguide-Based Immunosensors for Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxin Zearalenone

1
Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK
2
College of Sciences, Babylon University, P.O. Box 4, Hilla 51002, Iraq
3
Agro-Environmental Research Institute, National Research and Innovation Centre, Herman Ottó út 15, H-1022 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020089
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 25 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Detection of Mycotoxin Contamination)
A planar waveguide (PW) immunosensor working as a polarisation interferometer was developed for the detection of mycotoxin zearalenone (ZON). The main element of the sensor is an optical waveguide consisting of a thin silicon nitride layer between two thicker silicon dioxide layers. A combination of a narrow waveguiding core made by photolithography with an advanced optical set-up providing a coupling of circular polarised light into the PW via its slanted edge allowed the realization of a novel sensing principle by detection of the phase shift between the p- and s-components of polarised light propagating through the PW. As the p-component is sensitive to refractive index changes at the waveguide interface, molecular events between the sensor surface and the contacting sample solution can be detected. To detect ZON concentrations in the sample solution, ZON-specific antibodies were immobilised on the waveguide via an electrostatically deposited polyelectrolyte layer, and protein A was adsorbed on it. Refractive index changes on the surface due to the binding of ZON molecules to the anchored antibodies were detected in a concentration-dependent manner up to 1000 ng/mL of ZON, allowing a limit of detection of 0.01 ng/mL. Structurally unrelated mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 or ochratoxin A did not exert observable cross-reactivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; zearalenone; planar waveguide sensor; polarisation interferometer; label-free detection; limit of detection mycotoxin; zearalenone; planar waveguide sensor; polarisation interferometer; label-free detection; limit of detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nabok, A.; Al-Jawdah, A.M.; Gémes, B.; Takács, E.; Székács, A. An Optical Planar Waveguide-Based Immunosensors for Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxin Zearalenone. Toxins 2021, 13, 89. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020089

AMA Style

Nabok A, Al-Jawdah AM, Gémes B, Takács E, Székács A. An Optical Planar Waveguide-Based Immunosensors for Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxin Zearalenone. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):89. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020089

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nabok, Alexei; Al-Jawdah, Ali M.; Gémes, Borbála; Takács, Eszter; Székács, András. 2021. "An Optical Planar Waveguide-Based Immunosensors for Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxin Zearalenone" Toxins 13, no. 2: 89. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020089

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