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Open AccessArticle

Multi Mycotoxin Determination in Dried Beef Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

1
Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Mafikeng Campus, North West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, Mafikeng, South Africa
2
Ekiti State College of Agriculture and Technology, Isan Ekiti 371106, Ekiti State, Nigeria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060357
Received: 10 April 2020 / Revised: 6 May 2020 / Accepted: 11 May 2020 / Published: 29 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Dried beef meat, a locally processed meat from the cow, is vulnerable to contamination by mycotoxins, due to its exposure to the environmental microbiota during processing, drying, and point of sale. In this study, 108 dried beef samples were examined for the occurrence of 17 mycotoxins. Samples were extracted for mycotoxins using solid-liquid phase extraction method, while liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) via the dilute and shoot method was used to analyze the mycotoxins. Aflatoxin was found in 66% of the samples (average value of 23.56 µg/kg). AFB1 had a mean value of 105.4 µg/kg, AFB2 mean value of 6.92 µg/kg, and AFG1 and AFG2 had an average mean value of 40.49 µg/kg and 2.60 µg/kg, respectively. The total aflatoxins exceed the EU (4 μg/kg) permissible level in food. The α-Zea average mean value was 113.82 µg/kg for the various selling locations. Also, cyclopiazonic acid had an average mean value of 51.99 µg/kg, while some of the beef samples were contaminated with more than nine different mycotoxins. The occurrence of these mycotoxins in dried beef is an indication of possible exposure of its consumers to the dangers of mycotoxins that are usually associated with severe health problems. This result shows that there are mycotoxin residues in the beef sold in Ekiti State markets. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; mycotoxins; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; ochratoxin A; solid-liquid extraction; zearalenone; dried beef aflatoxins; mycotoxins; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; ochratoxin A; solid-liquid extraction; zearalenone; dried beef
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Dada, T.A.; Ekwomadu, T.I.; Mwanza, M. Multi Mycotoxin Determination in Dried Beef Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Toxins 2020, 12, 357.

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