Next Article in Journal
Assessment of Fungal Contamination in Fish Feed from the Lake Victoria Basin, Uganda
Next Article in Special Issue
Insight into Unprecedented Diversity of Cyanopeptides in Eutrophic Ponds Using an MS/MS Networking Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Leukotoxins
 
 
Article

Cylindrospermopsin- and Deoxycylindrospermopsin-Producing Raphidiopsis raciborskii and Microcystin-Producing Microcystis spp. in Meiktila Lake, Myanmar

1
Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349 Oslo, Norway
2
Forest Research Institute, 15013 Yezin, Myanmar
3
Department of Natural Sciences and Environmental Health, University of South- Eastern Norway, Gullbringvegen 36, N-3800 Bø, Norway
4
Department of Sustainable Agro-ecosystem and Bioresources, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
5
National Research Council, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, NS B3H 3Z1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040232
Received: 12 March 2020 / Revised: 2 April 2020 / Accepted: 3 April 2020 / Published: 7 April 2020
Meiktila Lake is a shallow reservoir located close to Meiktila city in central Myanmar. Its water is used for irrigation, domestic purposes and drinking water. No detailed study of the presence of cyanobacteria and their potential toxin production has been conducted so far. To ascertain the cyanobacterial composition and presence of cyanobacterial toxins in Meiktila Lake, water samples were collected in March and November 2017 and investigated for physico-chemical and biological parameters. Phytoplankton composition and biomass determination revealed that most of the samples were dominated by the cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis raciborskii. In a polyphasic approach, seven isolated cyanobacterial strains were classified morphologically and phylogenetically as R. raciborskii, and Microcystis spp. and tested for microcystins (MCs), cylindrospermopsins (CYNs), saxitoxins and anatoxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). ELISA and LC–MS analyses confirmed CYNs in three of the five Raphidiopsis strains between 1.8 and 9.8 μg mg−1 fresh weight. Both Microcystis strains produced MCs, one strain 52 congeners and the other strain 20 congeners, including 22 previously unreported variants. Due to the presence of CYN- and MC-producing cyanobacteria, harmful effects on humans, domestic and wild animals cannot be excluded in Meiktila Lake. View Full-Text
Keywords: Meiktila Lake; Raphidiopsis; Microcystis; cylindrospermopsin; deoxycylindrospermopsin; microcystin Meiktila Lake; Raphidiopsis; Microcystis; cylindrospermopsin; deoxycylindrospermopsin; microcystin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ballot, A.; Swe, T.; Mjelde, M.; Cerasino, L.; Hostyeva, V.; Miles, C.O. Cylindrospermopsin- and Deoxycylindrospermopsin-Producing Raphidiopsis raciborskii and Microcystin-Producing Microcystis spp. in Meiktila Lake, Myanmar. Toxins 2020, 12, 232. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040232

AMA Style

Ballot A, Swe T, Mjelde M, Cerasino L, Hostyeva V, Miles CO. Cylindrospermopsin- and Deoxycylindrospermopsin-Producing Raphidiopsis raciborskii and Microcystin-Producing Microcystis spp. in Meiktila Lake, Myanmar. Toxins. 2020; 12(4):232. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040232

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ballot, Andreas, Thida Swe, Marit Mjelde, Leonardo Cerasino, Vladyslava Hostyeva, and Christopher O. Miles. 2020. "Cylindrospermopsin- and Deoxycylindrospermopsin-Producing Raphidiopsis raciborskii and Microcystin-Producing Microcystis spp. in Meiktila Lake, Myanmar" Toxins 12, no. 4: 232. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040232

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop