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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Dissecting Toxicity: The Venom Gland Transcriptome and the Venom Proteome of the Highly Venomous Scorpion Centruroides limpidus (Karsch, 1879)

1
Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 2001, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210, Mexico
2
Laboratorio Universitario de Proteómica, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 2001, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050247
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Venom Components and Their Potential Usage)
Venom glands and soluble venom from the Mexican scorpion Centruroides limpidus (Karsch, 1879) were used for transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, respectively. An RNA-seq was performed by high-throughput sequencing with the Illumina platform. Approximately 80 million reads were obtained and assembled into 198,662 putative transcripts, of which 11,058 were annotated by similarity to sequences from available databases. A total of 192 venom-related sequences were identified, including Na+ and K+ channel-acting toxins, enzymes, host defense peptides, and other venom components. The most diverse transcripts were those potentially coding for ion channel-acting toxins, mainly those active on Na+ channels (NaScTx). Sequences corresponding to β- scorpion toxins active of K+ channels (KScTx) and λ-KScTx are here reported for the first time for a scorpion of the genus Centruroides. Mass fingerprint corroborated that NaScTx are the most abundant components in this venom. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 46 peptides matching sequences encoded in the transcriptome, confirming their expression in the venom. This study corroborates that, in the venom of toxic buthid scorpions, the more abundant and diverse components are ion channel-acting toxins, mainly NaScTx, while they lack the HDP diversity previously demonstrated for the non-buthid scorpions. The highly abundant and diverse antareases explain the pancreatitis observed after envenomation by this species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Centruroides limpidus Karch; proteome; scorpion; transcriptome; venom toxicity Centruroides limpidus Karch; proteome; scorpion; transcriptome; venom toxicity
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Cid-Uribe, J.I.; Meneses, E.P.; Batista, C.V.F.; Ortiz, E.; Possani, L.D. Dissecting Toxicity: The Venom Gland Transcriptome and the Venom Proteome of the Highly Venomous Scorpion Centruroides limpidus (Karsch, 1879). Toxins 2019, 11, 247.

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