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Open AccessArticle

Proteomic Analysis of Human Blister Fluids Following Envenomation by Three Snake Species in India: Differential Markers for Venom Mechanisms of Action

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia, School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908-734, USA
2
Department of Cell Biology, Brazilian Center of Protein Research, University of Brasilia, Brasilia/DF 70297-400, Brazil
3
Little Flower Hospital, Angamaly 683572, India
4
Sree Naryana Institute of Medical Science, Kerala 683594, India
5
Instituto Clodomiro Picado, School of Microbiology, University of Costa Rica, San José 11501-2060, Costa Rica
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050246
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 27 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
Skin blistering as a result of snakebite envenomation is characteristic of some bites, however little is known regarding the mechanism of blister formation or the composition of the blister fluid. In order to investigate if blister fluid proteomes from humans suffering snakebite envenomation could provide insights on the pathophysiology of these skin alterations, blister fluid was collected from six patients upon presentation at a clinic in India bitten by three species of snakes, Daboia russelii (3), Hypnale hypnale (2), or Naja naja (1). Standard clinical data were recorded throughout the treatment. Approximately 805 proteins were identified in blister fluids using proteomic analyses. Informatics analyses of the proteomes identified the top biological response categories as: platelet degranulation, innate immune response, receptor-mediated endocytosis, complement activation, and blood coagulation. Hierarchical clustering did not show a clear segregation of patients’ proteomes being associated with the species of snake involved, suggesting that either the proteomic profiles described reflect a general response to venom-induced tissue damage or more patient data sets will be required to observe significant differences. Finally, it is of interest that venom proteins were also identified in the blister fluids suggesting that this fluid may serve as a reservoir of venom biologically active proteins/toxins, and as such, may indicate the clinical value of removing blister fluid to attenuate further tissue damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: proteomics; blister fluid; wound exudate; snake venom; inflammation; extracellular matrix; snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) proteomics; blister fluid; wound exudate; snake venom; inflammation; extracellular matrix; snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP)
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Macêdo, J.K.A.; Joseph, J.K.; Menon, J.; Escalante, T.; Rucavado, A.; Gutiérrez, J.M.; Fox, J.W. Proteomic Analysis of Human Blister Fluids Following Envenomation by Three Snake Species in India: Differential Markers for Venom Mechanisms of Action. Toxins 2019, 11, 246.

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