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Distinctive Distribution of Secretory Phospholipases A2 in the Venoms of Afro-Asian Cobras (Subgenus: Naja, Afronaja, Boulengerina and Uraeus)

1
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020116
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

The protein abundances of phospholipases A2 in cobra venom proteomes appear to vary among cobra species. To determine the unique distribution of snake venom phospholipases A2 (svPLA2) in the cobras, the svPLA2 activities for 15 cobra species were examined with an acidimetric and a colorimetric assay, using egg yolk suspension and 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy benzoic acid (NOBA) as the substrate. The colorimetric assay showed significant correlation between svPLA2 enzymatic activities with the svPLA2 protein abundances in venoms. High svPLA2 activities were observed in the venoms of Asiatic spitting cobras (Naja sputatrix, Naja sumatrana) and moderate activities in Asiatic non-spitters (Naja naja, Naja atra, Naja kaouthia), African spitters (subgenus Afronaja), and forest cobra (subgenus Boulengerina). African non-spitting cobras of subgenus Uraeus (Naja haje, Naja annulifera, Naja nivea, Naja senegalensis) showed exceptionally low svPLA2 enzymatic activities. The negligible PLA2 activity in Uraeus cobra venoms implies that PLA2 may not be ubiquitous in all snake venoms. The svPLA2 in cobra envenoming varies depending on the cobra species. This may potentially influence the efficacy of cobra antivenom in specific use for venom neutralization. View Full-Text
Keywords: svPLA2; acidimetric assay; colorimetric assay; venom enzymatics; immunoreactivity; cobra venom svPLA2; acidimetric assay; colorimetric assay; venom enzymatics; immunoreactivity; cobra venom
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tan, C.H.; Wong, K.Y.; Tan, N.H.; Ng, T.S.; Tan, K.Y. Distinctive Distribution of Secretory Phospholipases A2 in the Venoms of Afro-Asian Cobras (Subgenus: Naja, Afronaja, Boulengerina and Uraeus). Toxins 2019, 11, 116.

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