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Review

Interaction between Insects, Toxins, and Bacteria: Have We Been Wrong So Far?

1
University of Perpignan, IHPE UMR 5244, CNRS, IFREMER, University of Montpellier, F-66860 Perpignan, France
2
University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, CEA, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France
Toxins 2018, 10(7), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070281
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Immunology)
Toxins are a major virulence factor produced by many pathogenic bacteria. In vertebrates, the response of hosts to the bacteria is inseparable from the response to the toxins, allowing a comprehensive understanding of this tripartite host-pathogen-toxin interaction. However, in invertebrates, this interaction has been investigated by two complementary but historically distinct fields of research: toxinology and immunology. In this article, I highlight how such dichotomy between these two fields led to a biased, or even erroneous view of the ecology and evolution of the interaction between insects, toxins, and bacteria. I focus on the reason behind such a dichotomy, on how to bridge the fields together, and on confounding effects that could bias the outcome of the experiments. Finally, I raise four questions at the border of the two fields on the cross-effects between toxins, bacteria, and spores that have been largely underexplored to promote a more comprehensive view of this interaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: invertebrate immunity; host-pathogens interaction; toxins; Bacillus thuringiensis; resistance invertebrate immunity; host-pathogens interaction; toxins; Bacillus thuringiensis; resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tetreau, G. Interaction between Insects, Toxins, and Bacteria: Have We Been Wrong So Far? Toxins 2018, 10, 281. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070281

AMA Style

Tetreau G. Interaction between Insects, Toxins, and Bacteria: Have We Been Wrong So Far? Toxins. 2018; 10(7):281. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070281

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tetreau, Guillaume. 2018. "Interaction between Insects, Toxins, and Bacteria: Have We Been Wrong So Far?" Toxins 10, no. 7: 281. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070281

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