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Toxins 2018, 10(7), 281;

Interaction between Insects, Toxins, and Bacteria: Have We Been Wrong So Far?

University of Perpignan, IHPE UMR 5244, CNRS, IFREMER, University of Montpellier, F-66860 Perpignan, France
University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, CEA, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Immunology)
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Toxins are a major virulence factor produced by many pathogenic bacteria. In vertebrates, the response of hosts to the bacteria is inseparable from the response to the toxins, allowing a comprehensive understanding of this tripartite host-pathogen-toxin interaction. However, in invertebrates, this interaction has been investigated by two complementary but historically distinct fields of research: toxinology and immunology. In this article, I highlight how such dichotomy between these two fields led to a biased, or even erroneous view of the ecology and evolution of the interaction between insects, toxins, and bacteria. I focus on the reason behind such a dichotomy, on how to bridge the fields together, and on confounding effects that could bias the outcome of the experiments. Finally, I raise four questions at the border of the two fields on the cross-effects between toxins, bacteria, and spores that have been largely underexplored to promote a more comprehensive view of this interaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: invertebrate immunity; host-pathogens interaction; toxins; Bacillus thuringiensis; resistance invertebrate immunity; host-pathogens interaction; toxins; Bacillus thuringiensis; resistance

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tetreau, G. Interaction between Insects, Toxins, and Bacteria: Have We Been Wrong So Far? Toxins 2018, 10, 281.

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