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Toxins 2018, 10(11), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110468

The Yellow Knight Fights Back: Toxicological, Epidemiological, and Survey Studies Defend Edibility of Tricholoma equestre

1
Institute of Environmental Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznan, Poland
2
Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-806 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Rhabdomyolysis, a condition associated with the consumption of Yellow Knight mushrooms (Tricholoma equestre), was first reported in 2001. In response, some countries began to consider the mushroom as poisonous, whereas in others it is still consumed. In the present study, a nationwide survey of Polish mushroom foragers (n = 1545) was conducted to estimate the frequency of T. equestre consumption. The epidemiological database on mushroom poisonings in Poland was analyzed from the year 2008. Hematological and biochemical parameters were followed for a week in 10 volunteers consuming 300 g of molecularly identified T. equestre. More than half the foragers had consumed T. equestre at least once in their lifetime and a quarter had consumed it consecutively. The frequency of adverse events was low and no rhabdomyolysis was reported. The toxicological database indicated that mushrooms from the Tricholoma genus caused poisonings less frequently than mushrooms with well-established edibility and not a single case of rhabdomyolysis has been reported within the last decade. The volunteers consuming T. equestre revealed no hematological or biochemical alterations and no adverse effects were observed. The findings of this study support the view that T. equestre is edible if consumed in rational amounts by healthy subjects. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tricholoma equestre; toxicity; mushroom poisoning; mushroom edibility; food safety Tricholoma equestre; toxicity; mushroom poisoning; mushroom edibility; food safety
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Klimaszyk, P.; Rzymski, P. The Yellow Knight Fights Back: Toxicological, Epidemiological, and Survey Studies Defend Edibility of Tricholoma equestre. Toxins 2018, 10, 468.

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