Next Article in Journal
The Yellow Knight Fights Back: Toxicological, Epidemiological, and Survey Studies Defend Edibility of Tricholoma equestre
Next Article in Special Issue
A Systematic Overview of Type II and III Toxin-Antitoxin Systems with a Focus on Druggability
Previous Article in Journal
Generation of Highly Efficient Equine-Derived Antibodies for Post-Exposure Treatment of Ricin Intoxications by Vaccination with Monomerized Ricin
Previous Article in Special Issue
HigB Reciprocally Controls Biofilm Formation and the Expression of Type III Secretion System Genes through Influencing the Intracellular c-di-GMP Level in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(11), 467;

Identification of Three Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Streptococcus suis Serotype 2

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control Agents for Animal Bacteriosis, Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430064, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2656 KB, uploaded 13 November 2018]   |  


Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are highly prevalent in bacterial genomes and have been extensively studied. These modules involve in the formation of persistence cells, the biofilm formation, and stress resistance, which might play key roles in pathogen virulence. SezAT and yefM-yoeB TA modules in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) have been studied, although the other TA systems have not been identified. In this study, we investigated nine putative type II TA systems in the genome of S. suis 2 strain SC84 by bioinformatics analysis and identified three of them (two relBE loci and one parDE locus) that function as typical type II TA systems. Interestingly, we found that the introduction of the two RelBE TA systems into Escherichia coli or the induction of the ParE toxin led to cell filamentation. Promoter activity assays indicated that RelB1, RelB2, ParD, and ParDE negatively autoregulated the transcriptions of their respective TA operons, while RelBE2 positively autoregulated its TA operon transcription. Collectively, we identified three TA systems in S. suis 2, and our findings have laid an important foundation for further functional studies on these TA systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: RelBE; ParDE; cell filamentation; autoregulation RelBE; ParDE; cell filamentation; autoregulation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, J.; Zhang, N.; Cao, M.; Ren, S.; Zeng, T.; Qin, M.; Zhao, X.; Yuan, F.; Chen, H.; Bei, W. Identification of Three Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Streptococcus suis Serotype 2. Toxins 2018, 10, 467.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top