Next Article in Journal
A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Autophagic Lipolysis in Adipocytes
Open AccessArticle

Natural Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Triglyceride Form Attenuates In Vitro Microglial Activation and Ameliorates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice

1
Neurotec Pharma SL, Bioincubadora PCB-Santander, Parc Científic de Barcelona, Baldiri Reixac 15, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Falcutat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 643, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
Unitat de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Departament de Ciències Fisiològiques I, Facultat de Medicina, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Casanova 143, E-08036 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070681
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated, at least in part, to an inflammatory process in which microglia plays a major role. The effect of the triglyceride form of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (TG-DHA) was assayed in vitro and in vivo to assess the protective and anti-inflammatory activity of this compound. In the in vitro study, BV-2 microglia cells were previously treated with TG-DHA and then activated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). TG-DHA treatment protected BV-2 microglia cells from oxidative stress toxicity attenuating NO production and suppressing the induction of inflammatory cytokines. When compared with DHA in the ethyl-ester form, a significant difference in the ability to inhibit NO production in favor of TG-DHA was observed. TG-DHA inhibited significantly splenocyte proliferation but isolated CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation was unaffected. In a mice model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), 250 mg/kg/day oral TG-DHA treatment was associated with a significant amelioration of the course and severity of the disease as compared to untreated animals. TG-DHA-treated EAE mice showed a better weight profile, which is a symptom related to a better course of encephalomyelitis. TG-DHA may be a promising therapeutic agent in neuroinflammatory processes and merit to be more extensively studied in human neurodegenerative disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid; microglia; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; oxidative stress; anti-inflammatory process; EAE model docosahexaenoic acid; microglia; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; oxidative stress; anti-inflammatory process; EAE model
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Mancera, P.; Wappenhans, B.; Cordobilla, B.; Virgili, N.; Pugliese, M.; Rueda, F.; Espinosa-Parrilla, J.F.; Domingo, J.C. Natural Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Triglyceride Form Attenuates In Vitro Microglial Activation and Ameliorates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice. Nutrients 2017, 9, 681.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop