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Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores

Lee’s Endocrinologic Clinic, Pingtung 90000, Taiwan
Department of Nutrition, Jen-Ai Hospital, Tali-Taichung 40201, Taiwan
Department of Dietetics & Nutrition, Yang Ming Hospital, Chiayi 60045, Taiwan
School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 118;
Received: 11 January 2016 / Revised: 18 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction)
PDF [227 KB, uploaded 26 February 2016]


Diabetes is considered an oxidative stress and a chronic inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between vitamin B-12 status and oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic vegetarians and omnivores. We enrolled 154 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 vegetarians and 100 omnivores). Levels of fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammatory makers were measured. Diabetic vegetarians with higher levels of vitamin B-12 (>250 pmol/L) had significantly lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and higher antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase) than those with lower levels of vitamin B-12 (≤250 pmol/L). A significant association was found between vitamin B-12 status and fasting glucose (r = −0.17, p = 0.03), HbA1c (r = −0.33, p = 0.02), oxidative stress (oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, r = −0.19, p = 0.03), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in the diabetic vegetarians; vitamin B-12 status was significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, r = −0.33, p < 0.01) in diabetic omnivores. As a result, we suggest that it is necessary to monitor the levels of vitamin B-12 in patients with diabetes, particularly those adhering to a vegetarian diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin B-12; oxidative stress; inflammation; vegetarian; diabetes vitamin B-12; oxidative stress; inflammation; vegetarian; diabetes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lee, Y.-J.; Wang, M.-Y.; Lin, M.-C.; Lin, P.-T. Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores. Nutrients 2016, 8, 118.

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