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Low Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Nepalese Infants Despite High Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Their Mothers

Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer 2609, Norway
Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen 5007, Norway
Department of Child Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 8212, Nepal
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo 0130, Norway
Johns Hopkins Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
WorldFish, P.O. Box 500 GPO, Penang 10670, Malaysia
Departments of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen 5007, Norway
Bevital AS, Bergen 5021, Norway
Department of Sports Science, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Lillehammer 2604, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 825;
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
PDF [796 KB, uploaded 21 December 2016]


Background: Describing vitamin D status and its predictors in various populations is important in order to target public health measures. Objectives: To describe the status and predictors of vitamin D status in healthy Nepalese mothers and infants. Methods: 500 randomly selected Nepalese mother and infant pairs were included in a cross-sectional study. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS and multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify predictors of vitamin D status. Results: Among the infants, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH)D <50 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) were 3.6% and 0.6%, respectively, in contrast to 59.8% and 14.0% among their mothers. Infant 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively associated with infant age and positively associated with maternal vitamin D status and body mass index (BMI), explaining 22% of the variability in 25(OH)D concentration. Global solar radiation, maternal age and BMI predicted maternal 25(OH)D concentration, explaining 9.7% of its variability. Conclusion: Age and maternal vitamin D status are the main predictors of vitamin D status in infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal, who have adequate vitamin D status despite poor vitamin D status in their mothers. View Full-Text
Keywords: 25(OH)D; vitamin D status; season; lactating mothers; infants; Nepal 25(OH)D; vitamin D status; season; lactating mothers; infants; Nepal

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Haugen, J.; Ulak, M.; Chandyo, R.K.; Henjum, S.; Thorne-Lyman, A.L.; Ueland, P.M.; Midtun, Ø.; Shrestha, P.S.; Strand, T.A. Low Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Nepalese Infants Despite High Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Their Mothers. Nutrients 2016, 8, 825.

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