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Article

Influence of Aging, Macronutrient Composition and Time-Restricted Feeding on the Fischer344 x Brown Norway Rat Gut Microbiota

1
Division of Gerontology, Geriatrics and Palliative Care, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
2
UAB Center for Exercise Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
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Nathan Shock Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
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CardioRenal Physiology and Medicine Section, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
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Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, Department of Neuroscience and McKnight Brain Institute, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
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Integrative Center for Aging Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
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Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dina Bellizzi
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091758
Received: 8 March 2022 / Revised: 19 April 2022 / Accepted: 21 April 2022 / Published: 22 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Both ketogenic diets (KD) and time-restricted feeding (TRF) regimens have the ability to influence several parameters of physical health, including gut microbiome composition and circulating cytokine concentration. Moreover, both of these dietary interventions prevent common impairments associated with the aging process. However, significantly altering macronutrient intake, which is required for a KD, may be unappealing to individuals and decrease compliance to dietary treatments. In contrast to a KD, TRF allows individuals to continue eating the foods they are used to, and only requires a change in the time of day at which they eat. Therefore, we investigated both a KD and a diet with a more Western-like macronutrient profile in the context of TRF, and compared both diets to animals allowed access to standard chow ad libitum in young adult and aged rats. While limited effects on cytokine levels were observed, both methods of microbiome analysis (16S sequencing and metagenomics) indicate that TRF and KDs significantly altered the gut microbiome in aged rats. These changes were largely dependent on changes to feeding paradigm (TRF vs. ad libitum) alone regardless of macronutrient content for many gut microbiota, but there were also macronutrient-specific changes. Specifically, functional analysis indicates significant differences in several pathways, including those involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, carbohydrate metabolism and neurodegenerative disease. These data indicate that age- and disease-related gut dysbiosis may be ameliorated through the use of TRF with both standard diets and KDs. View Full-Text
Keywords: ketogenic diet; intermittent fasting; gut; 16S; cytokine ketogenic diet; intermittent fasting; gut; 16S; cytokine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hernandez, A.R.; Kemp, K.M.; Burke, S.N.; Buford, T.W.; Carter, C.S. Influence of Aging, Macronutrient Composition and Time-Restricted Feeding on the Fischer344 x Brown Norway Rat Gut Microbiota. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1758. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091758

AMA Style

Hernandez AR, Kemp KM, Burke SN, Buford TW, Carter CS. Influence of Aging, Macronutrient Composition and Time-Restricted Feeding on the Fischer344 x Brown Norway Rat Gut Microbiota. Nutrients. 2022; 14(9):1758. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091758

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hernandez, Abbi R., Keri M. Kemp, Sara N. Burke, Thomas W. Buford, and Christy S. Carter. 2022. "Influence of Aging, Macronutrient Composition and Time-Restricted Feeding on the Fischer344 x Brown Norway Rat Gut Microbiota" Nutrients 14, no. 9: 1758. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091758

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