Next Article in Journal
The Role of Micronutrients in Ageing Asia: What Can Be Implemented with the Existing Insights
Next Article in Special Issue
Factors Influencing the Compliance of Pregnant Women with Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation in the Philippines: 2017 Philippine Demographic and Health Survey Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Oral Hyaluronan Relieves Wrinkles and Improves Dry Skin: A 12-Week Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Are Pregnant Women Who Are Living with Overweight or Obesity at Greater Risk of Developing Iron Deficiency/Anaemia?
 
 
Review

Maternal Iron Status in Pregnancy and Child Health Outcomes after Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC-Sophia, University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2060, 3000 CB Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC-Sophia, University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2060, 3000 CB Rotterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Erasmus MC-Sophia, University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2060, 3000 CB Rotterdam, The Netherlands
4
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Erasmus MC-Sophia, University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2060, 3000 CB Rotterdam, The Netherlands
5
Molecular Medicine Partnership Unit, University Hospital Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
6
Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
7
Zurich Center for Integrative, Human Physiology, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
8
School of Medicine, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 15102, Peru
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Faruk Ahmed
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072221
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 18 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micronutrients and Pregnancy)
In pregnancy, iron deficiency and iron overload increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, but the effects of maternal iron status on long-term child health are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to systematically review and analyze the literature on maternal iron status in pregnancy and long-term outcomes in the offspring after birth. We report a systematic review on maternal iron status during pregnancy in relation to child health outcomes after birth, from database inception until 21 January 2021, with methodological quality rating (Newcastle-Ottawa tool) and random-effect meta-analysis. (PROSPERO, CRD42020162202). The search identified 8139 studies, of which 44 were included, describing 12,7849 mother–child pairs. Heterogeneity amongst the studies was strong. Methodological quality was predominantly moderate to high. Iron status was measured usually late in pregnancy. The majority of studies compared categories based on maternal ferritin, however, definitions of iron deficiency differed across studies. The follow-up period was predominantly limited to infancy. Fifteen studies reported outcomes on child iron status or hemoglobin, 20 on neurodevelopmental outcomes, and the remainder on a variety of other outcomes. In half of the studies, low maternal iron status or iron deficiency was associated with adverse outcomes in children. Meta-analyses showed an association of maternal ferritin with child soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, though child ferritin, transferrin saturation, or hemoglobin values showed no consistent association. Studies on maternal iron status above normal, or iron excess, suggest deleterious effects on infant growth, cognition, and childhood Type 1 diabetes. Maternal iron status in pregnancy was not consistently associated with child iron status after birth. The very heterogeneous set of studies suggests detrimental effects of iron deficiency, and possibly also of overload, on other outcomes including child neurodevelopment. Studies are needed to determine clinically meaningful definitions of iron deficiency and overload in pregnancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrients; fetal programming; long term outcomes; gestation; offspring nutrients; fetal programming; long term outcomes; gestation; offspring
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Quezada-Pinedo, H.G.; Cassel, F.; Duijts, L.; Muckenthaler, M.U.; Gassmann, M.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Reiss, I.K.M.; Vermeulen, M.J. Maternal Iron Status in Pregnancy and Child Health Outcomes after Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2221. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072221

AMA Style

Quezada-Pinedo HG, Cassel F, Duijts L, Muckenthaler MU, Gassmann M, Jaddoe VWV, Reiss IKM, Vermeulen MJ. Maternal Iron Status in Pregnancy and Child Health Outcomes after Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2221. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072221

Chicago/Turabian Style

Quezada-Pinedo, Hugo G., Florian Cassel, Liesbeth Duijts, Martina U. Muckenthaler, Max Gassmann, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Irwin K. M. Reiss, and Marijn J. Vermeulen. 2021. "Maternal Iron Status in Pregnancy and Child Health Outcomes after Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2221. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072221

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop