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Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study

Unit of Cardiovascular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK
National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
MRC Biostatistics Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SR, UK
Unit of Medical Epidemiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shannon L. Lennon
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2218;
Received: 2 June 2021 / Revised: 22 June 2021 / Accepted: 26 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Disease)
Coffee consumption has been linked to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease in observational studies, but whether the associations are causal is not known. We conducted a Mendelian randomization investigation to assess the potential causal role of coffee consumption in cardiovascular disease. Twelve independent genetic variants were used to proxy coffee consumption. Summary-level data for the relations between the 12 genetic variants and cardiovascular diseases were taken from the UK Biobank with up to 35,979 cases and the FinnGen consortium with up to 17,325 cases. Genetic predisposition to higher coffee consumption was not associated with any of the 15 studied cardiovascular outcomes in univariable MR analysis. The odds ratio per 50% increase in genetically predicted coffee consumption ranged from 0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63, 1.50) for intracerebral hemorrhage to 1.26 (95% CI, 1.00, 1.58) for deep vein thrombosis in the UK Biobank and from 0.86 (95% CI, 0.50, 1.49) for subarachnoid hemorrhage to 1.34 (95% CI, 0.81, 2.22) for intracerebral hemorrhage in FinnGen. The null findings remained in multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses adjusted for genetically predicted body mass index and smoking initiation, except for a suggestive positive association for intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio 1.91; 95% CI, 1.03, 3.54) in FinnGen. This Mendelian randomization study showed limited evidence that coffee consumption affects the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, suggesting that previous observational studies may have been confounded. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular disease; coffee; mendelian randomization analysis cardiovascular disease; coffee; mendelian randomization analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yuan, S.; Carter, P.; Mason, A.M.; Burgess, S.; Larsson, S.C. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2218.

AMA Style

Yuan S, Carter P, Mason AM, Burgess S, Larsson SC. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2218.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yuan, Shuai, Paul Carter, Amy M. Mason, Stephen Burgess, and Susanna C. Larsson. 2021. "Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2218.

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