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Diet, Microbiome, and Cancer Immunotherapy—A Comprehensive Review

Department of Pneumology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
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Academic Editor: Keisuke Hagihara
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072217
Received: 16 April 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 25 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
The immune system plays a key role in cancer suppression. Immunotherapy is widely used as a treatment method in patients with various types of cancer. Immune checkpoint blockade using antibodies, such as anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-CTLA-4, is currently gaining popularity. A systematic literature search was executed, and all available data was summarized. This review shows that specific dietary patterns (such as, e.g., animal-based, vegetarian, or Mediterranean diet) alter the gut microbiome’s composition. An appropriate intestinal microbiota structure might modulate the function of human immune system, which affects the bodily anti-cancer response. This paper shows also that specific bacteria species inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract can have a beneficial influence on the efficacy of immunotherapy. Antibiotics weaken gut bacteria and worsen the immune checkpoint blockers’ efficacy, whereas a faecal microbiota transplant or probiotics supplementation may help restore bacterial balance in the intestine. Other factors (like vitamins, glucose, or BMI) change the cancer treatment response, as well. This review demonstrates that there is a strong association between one’s diet, gut microbiome composition, and the outcome of immunotherapy. However, further investigation on this subject is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: human intestinal microbiota; faecal microbiota transplant; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint blockade; nutrition; diet human intestinal microbiota; faecal microbiota transplant; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint blockade; nutrition; diet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Szczyrek, M.; Bitkowska, P.; Chunowski, P.; Czuchryta, P.; Krawczyk, P.; Milanowski, J. Diet, Microbiome, and Cancer Immunotherapy—A Comprehensive Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2217. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072217

AMA Style

Szczyrek M, Bitkowska P, Chunowski P, Czuchryta P, Krawczyk P, Milanowski J. Diet, Microbiome, and Cancer Immunotherapy—A Comprehensive Review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2217. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072217

Chicago/Turabian Style

Szczyrek, Michał, Paulina Bitkowska, Patryk Chunowski, Paulina Czuchryta, Paweł Krawczyk, and Janusz Milanowski. 2021. "Diet, Microbiome, and Cancer Immunotherapy—A Comprehensive Review" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2217. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072217

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