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Beyond Nutrient Deficiency—Opportunities to Improve Nutritional Status and Promote Health Modernizing DRIs and Supplementation Recommendations

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Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1H 0B5, Canada
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Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
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Center for Magnesium Education and Research, Pahao, HI 96778, USA
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Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, USA
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Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD 57105, USA
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The Fatty Acid Research Institute, Sioux Falls, SD 57106, USA
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Science & Technology, Pharmavite LLC, West Hills, CA 91304, USA
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FoodTrition Solutions, LLC, Hackettstown, NJ 07840, USA
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Global Regulatory and Scientific Affairs, Omniactive Health Technologies, Morristown, NJ 07960, USA
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Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University of Maastricht, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose Lara
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061844
Received: 8 April 2021 / Revised: 13 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 28 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
The US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) provide dietary recommendations to meet nutrient needs, promote health, and prevent disease. Despite 40 years of DGA, the prevalence of under-consumed nutrients continues in the US and globally, although dietary supplement use can help to fill shortfalls. Nutrient recommendations are based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) to meet the nutrient requirements for nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group and many need to be updated using current evidence. There is an opportunity to modernize vitamin and mineral intake recommendations based on biomarker or surrogate endpoint levels needed to ‘prevent deficiency’ with DRIs based on ranges of biomarker or surrogate endpoints levels that support normal cell/organ/tissue function in healthy individuals, and to establish DRIs for bioactive compounds. We recommend vitamin K and Mg DRIs be updated and DRIs be established for lutein and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA). With increasing interest in personalized (or precision) nutrition, we propose greater research investment in validating biomarkers and metabolic health measures and the development and use of inexpensive diagnostic devices. Data generated from such approaches will help elucidate optimal nutrient status, provide objective evaluations of an individual’s nutritional status, and serve to provide personalized nutrition guidance. View Full-Text
Keywords: DRIs; lutein; EPA and DHA; magnesium; vitamin K; dietary guidelines; nutritional status DRIs; lutein; EPA and DHA; magnesium; vitamin K; dietary guidelines; nutritional status
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MDPI and ACS Style

McBurney, M.I.; Blumberg, J.B.; Costello, R.B.; Eggersdorfer, M.; Erdman, J.W., Jr.; Harris, W.S.; Johnson, E.J.; Hazels Mitmesser, S.; Post, R.C.; Rai, D.; Schurgers, L.J. Beyond Nutrient Deficiency—Opportunities to Improve Nutritional Status and Promote Health Modernizing DRIs and Supplementation Recommendations. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1844. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061844

AMA Style

McBurney MI, Blumberg JB, Costello RB, Eggersdorfer M, Erdman JW Jr., Harris WS, Johnson EJ, Hazels Mitmesser S, Post RC, Rai D, Schurgers LJ. Beyond Nutrient Deficiency—Opportunities to Improve Nutritional Status and Promote Health Modernizing DRIs and Supplementation Recommendations. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):1844. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061844

Chicago/Turabian Style

McBurney, Michael I., Jeffrey B. Blumberg, Rebecca B. Costello, Manfred Eggersdorfer, John W. Erdman Jr., William S. Harris, Elizabeth J. Johnson, Susan Hazels Mitmesser, Robert C. Post, Deshanie Rai, and Leon J. Schurgers 2021. "Beyond Nutrient Deficiency—Opportunities to Improve Nutritional Status and Promote Health Modernizing DRIs and Supplementation Recommendations" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 1844. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061844

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