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Article

Reduction of Cardio-Metabolic Risk and Body Weight through a Multiphasic Very-Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet Program in Women with Overweight/Obesity: A Study in a Real-World Setting

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
Center of Obesity and Work EASO Collaborating Centers for Obesity Management, Occupational Health Unit, Fondazione Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
3
IRCCS MultiMedica, Sesto S. Giovanni, 20099 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rosa Casas
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061804
Received: 9 April 2021 / Revised: 10 May 2021 / Accepted: 22 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
Background: The prevention and treatment of obesity and its cardio-metabolic complications are relevant issues worldwide. Among lifestyle approaches, very low-calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKD) have been shown to lead to rapid initial weight loss, resulting in better long-term weight loss maintenance. As no information on VLCKD studies carried on in a real-world setting are available, we conducted this multi-centre study in a real-world setting, aiming at assessing the efficacy and the safety of a specific multiphasic VLCKD program in women with overweight or obesity. Methods: A multi-center, prospective, uncontrolled trial was conducted in 33 outpatient women (age range 27–60 y) with overweight or obesity (BMI: 30.9 ± 2.7 kg/m2; waist circumference: 96.0 ± 9.4 cm) who started a VLCKD dietary program (duration: 24 weeks), divided into four phases. The efficacy of VLCKD was assessed by evaluating anthropometric measures and cardiometabolic markers; liver and kidney function biomarkers were assessed as safety parameters. Results: The VLCKD program resulted in a significant decrease of body weight and BMI (−14.6%) and waist circumference (−12.4%). At the end of the protocol, 33.3% of the participants reached a normal weight and the subjects in the obesity range were reduced from 70% to 16.7%. HOMA-IR was markedly reduced from 3.17 ± 2.67 to 1.73 ± 1.23 already after phase 2 and was unchanged thereafter. Systolic blood pressure decreased after phase 1 (−3.5 mmHg) and remained unchanged until the end of the program. Total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced by VLCKD along with a significant HDL cholesterol increase. Liver, kidney and thyroid function markers did not change and remained within the reference range. Conclusions: The findings of a multi-center VLCKD program conducted in a real-world setting in a cohort of overweight/obese women indicate that it is safe and effective, as it results in a major improvement of cardiometabolic parameters, thus leading to benefits that span well beyond the mere body weight/adiposity reduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: very-low calorie ketogenic diet; obesity; cardiovascular risk; insulin resistance; nutraceutical very-low calorie ketogenic diet; obesity; cardiovascular risk; insulin resistance; nutraceutical
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tragni, E.; Vigna, L.; Ruscica, M.; Macchi, C.; Casula, M.; Santelia, A.; Catapano, A.L.; Magni, P. Reduction of Cardio-Metabolic Risk and Body Weight through a Multiphasic Very-Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet Program in Women with Overweight/Obesity: A Study in a Real-World Setting. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1804. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061804

AMA Style

Tragni E, Vigna L, Ruscica M, Macchi C, Casula M, Santelia A, Catapano AL, Magni P. Reduction of Cardio-Metabolic Risk and Body Weight through a Multiphasic Very-Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet Program in Women with Overweight/Obesity: A Study in a Real-World Setting. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):1804. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061804

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tragni, Elena, Luisella Vigna, Massimiliano Ruscica, Chiara Macchi, Manuela Casula, Alfonso Santelia, Alberico L. Catapano, and Paolo Magni. 2021. "Reduction of Cardio-Metabolic Risk and Body Weight through a Multiphasic Very-Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet Program in Women with Overweight/Obesity: A Study in a Real-World Setting" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 1804. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061804

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