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Review

Breast Milk: A Source of Functional Compounds with Potential Application in Nutrition and Therapy

1
Pharmacy Faculty, San Pablo-CEU University, 28003 Madrid, Spain
2
Medicine Faculty, Santiago de Compostela University, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Santiago de Compostela University, 27002 Lugo, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mariona Palou
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031026
Received: 4 February 2021 / Revised: 9 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 22 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
Breast milk is an unbeatable food that covers all the nutritional requirements of an infant in its different stages of growth up to six months after birth. In addition, breastfeeding benefits both maternal and child health. Increasing knowledge has been acquired regarding the composition of breast milk. Epidemiological studies and epigenetics allow us to understand the possible lifelong effects of breastfeeding. In this review we have compiled some of the components with clear functional activity that are present in human milk and the processes through which they promote infant development and maturation as well as modulate immunity. Milk fat globule membrane, proteins, oligosaccharides, growth factors, milk exosomes, or microorganisms are functional components to use in infant formulas, any other food products, nutritional supplements, nutraceuticals, or even for the development of new clinical therapies. The clinical evaluation of these compounds and their commercial exploitation are limited by the difficulty of isolating and producing them on an adequate scale. In this work we focus on the compounds produced using milk components from other species such as bovine, transgenic cattle capable of expressing components of human breast milk or microbial culture engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast milk; infant formulas; functional compounds; milk fat globule membrane; breastmilk proteins; oligosaccharides; growth factors; milk exosomes; milk microbiome; probiotics breast milk; infant formulas; functional compounds; milk fat globule membrane; breastmilk proteins; oligosaccharides; growth factors; milk exosomes; milk microbiome; probiotics
MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez, C.; Franco, L.; Regal, P.; Lamas, A.; Cepeda, A.; Fente, C. Breast Milk: A Source of Functional Compounds with Potential Application in Nutrition and Therapy. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1026. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031026

AMA Style

Sánchez C, Franco L, Regal P, Lamas A, Cepeda A, Fente C. Breast Milk: A Source of Functional Compounds with Potential Application in Nutrition and Therapy. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):1026. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031026

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sánchez, Cristina, Luis Franco, Patricia Regal, Alexandre Lamas, Alberto Cepeda, and Cristina Fente. 2021. "Breast Milk: A Source of Functional Compounds with Potential Application in Nutrition and Therapy" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 1026. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031026

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