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Review

Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in Early Life on Children’s Growth and Body Composition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

1
CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada
2
Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Montreal, QC H2P 1E2, Canada
3
School of Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal, QC H9X 3L9, Canada
4
OMNI Research Group, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada
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Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Newborn Care, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
6
School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1G 5Z3, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tyler Barker
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020524
Received: 5 January 2021 / Revised: 28 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 5 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition and Future Health: Food Contaminants’ Impacts)
Background: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy or infancy is associated with adverse growth in children. No systematic review has been conducted to summarize available evidence on the effect of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and infancy on growth and body composition in children. Objective: We aim to summarize the available evidence on the effect of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and infancy on child growth and body composition. Method: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on the effects of vitamin D supplementation during early life on children’s growth and body composition (bone, lean and fat). A literature search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to identify relevant studies on the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and infancy on children’s body composition (bone, lean and fat) in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library from inception to 31 December 2020. A Cochrane Risk Assessment Tool was used for quality assessment. The comparison was vitamin D supplementation vs. placebo or standard care. Random-effects and fixed-effect meta-analyses were conducted. The effects are presented as mean differences (MDs) or risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 3960 participants from eleven randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy was associated with higher triceps skinfold thickness (mm) (MD 0.33, 95% CI, 0.12, 0.54; I2 = 34%) in neonates. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy or infancy was associated with significantly increased length for age z-score in infants at 1 year of age (MD 0.29, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.54; I2 = 0%), and was associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) (MD −0.19, 95% CI −0.34, −0.04; I2 = 0%) and body mass index z-score (BMIZ) (MD −0.12, 95% CI −0.21, −0.04; I2 = 0%) in offspring at 3–6 years of age. Vitamin D supplementation during early life was not observed to be associated with children’s bone, lean or fat mass. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy or infancy may be associated with reduced adiposity in childhood. Further large clinical trials of the effects of vitamin D supplementation on childhood body composition are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitamin D; pregnancy; infancy; randomized controlled trials; childhood; body composition; adiposity Vitamin D; pregnancy; infancy; randomized controlled trials; childhood; body composition; adiposity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, K.; Wei, S.Q.; Bi, W.G.; Weiler, H.A.; Wen, S.W. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in Early Life on Children’s Growth and Body Composition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients 2021, 13, 524. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020524

AMA Style

Ma K, Wei SQ, Bi WG, Weiler HA, Wen SW. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in Early Life on Children’s Growth and Body Composition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):524. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020524

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ma, Kristine, Shu Q. Wei, Wei G. Bi, Hope A. Weiler, and Shi W. Wen 2021. "Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in Early Life on Children’s Growth and Body Composition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 524. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020524

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