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The Optimal Strategy of Vitamin D for Sarcopenia: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

by 1,2,3, 4,5,6,7, 5,8,9,10, 1,*,† and 5,8,11,12,*,†
1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
2
Department of Orthopedics, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
3
Department of Orthopedics, Wan Fang Hospital, Medical University Hospital, Taipei 116, Taiwan
4
Post-Baccalaureate Program in Nursing, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
5
Cochrane Taiwan, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
6
Center for Nursing and Healthcare Research in Clinical Practice Application, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 116, Taiwan
7
Evidence-Based Knowledge Translation Center, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 116, Taiwan
8
Evidence-Based Medicine Center, Wan Fang Hospital, Medical University Hospital, Taipei 116, Taiwan
9
Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 116, Taiwan
10
Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
11
Research Center of Big Data and Meta-Analysis, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 116, Taiwan
12
Institute of Health Policy & Management, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Roberto Iacone
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3589; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103589
Received: 4 September 2021 / Revised: 10 October 2021 / Accepted: 11 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Sarcopenia is a disease of gradual loss of muscle mass in elderly people, and the most common treatment options include nutritional supplementation and exercise. Vitamin D has potential beneficial effects for skeletal muscle tissue and has often been included in nutritional therapy formulations. However, the therapeutic effect of vitamin D for the treatment of sarcopenia has not yet been determine and there is a lack of high-quality supporting evidence. We searched three databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on this topic. Changes in hand grip strength, gait speed, chair-stand test, fat mass, relative skeletal muscle index, and muscle mass were assessed for analysis. Network meta-analysis was further employed, based on the frequentist approach. Outcomes were reported as weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 9 RCTs (n = 1420) met our eligibility criteria, which treated patients with vitamin D (D), protein (P, n = 165), exercise (E, n = 124), iso-caloric product (I, n = 226), usual care without nutritional supplement (n = 65), P + D (n = 467), D + E (n = 72), P + E (n = 69), D + E + I (n = 73), and P + D + E (n = 159). The pooled estimate showed that the P + D + E intervention induced a greater improvement in hand grip strength than iso-caloric product intervention (WMD = 3.86; 95%CI, 0.52–7.21). Vitamin D intervention could lead to shorter chair-stand time (WMD = −1.32; 95%CI, −1.98 to −0.65), but no significant findings could be found for gait speed and muscle mass outcomes. Our synthesis found that combining vitamin D supplementation with protein supplementation and exercise can significantly increase grip strength and also showed a trend toward increasing muscle mass. This result implies that adding vitamin D to a standard treatment protocol for sarcopenia may be helpful for regaining function. View Full-Text
Keywords: muscle mass; grip strength; gait speed; sarcopenia; vitamin D muscle mass; grip strength; gait speed; sarcopenia; vitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, S.-H.; Chen, K.-H.; Chen, C.; Chu, W.-C.; Kang, Y.-N. The Optimal Strategy of Vitamin D for Sarcopenia: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3589. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103589

AMA Style

Cheng S-H, Chen K-H, Chen C, Chu W-C, Kang Y-N. The Optimal Strategy of Vitamin D for Sarcopenia: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3589. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103589

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cheng, Shih-Hao, Kee-Hsin Chen, Chiehfeng Chen, Woei-Chyn Chu, and Yi-No Kang. 2021. "The Optimal Strategy of Vitamin D for Sarcopenia: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3589. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103589

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