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Article

Change in Micronutrient Intake among People with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Adapting the Swank and Wahls Diets: An Analysis of Weighed Food Records

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
3
Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
4
Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lutz Schomburg and Roberto Iacone
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103507
Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 27 September 2021 / Accepted: 1 October 2021 / Published: 5 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Multiple Sclerosis)
The low-saturated fat (Swank) and modified Paleolithic elimination (Wahls) diets have shown promise for MS symptoms; however, due to their restriction of specific foods, inadequate intake of micronutrients is concerning. Therefore, as part of a randomized trial, weighed food records were collected on three consecutive days and were used to evaluate the intake of micronutrients among people with relapsing remitting MS adapting these diets. After randomization to either the Swank or Wahls diets, diet education and support was provided by registered dietitians at baseline and throughout the first 12 weeks of the intervention. Usual intake of each micronutrient was estimated and then evaluated with the EAR-cut point method. At 12 weeks, the Swank group had significant reductions in the proportion with inadequate intake from food for vitamins C, D, and E, while the Wahls group had significant reductions for magnesium and vitamins A, C, D, and E. However, the proportion with inadequate intake significantly increased for calcium, thiamin, and vitamin B12 in the Wahls group and for vitamin A in the Swank group. Inclusion of intake from supplements reduced the proportion with inadequate intake for all micronutrients except calcium among the Wahls group but increased the proportion with excessive intake for vitamin D and niacin among both groups and magnesium among the Swank group. Both diets, especially when including intake from supplements, are associated with reduced inadequate intake compared to the normal diet of people with relapsing remitting MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; modified Paleolithic diet; low-saturated fat diet; micronutrients; micronutrient inadequacy multiple sclerosis; modified Paleolithic diet; low-saturated fat diet; micronutrients; micronutrient inadequacy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Titcomb, T.J.; Brooks, L.; Smith, K.L.; Ten Eyck, P.; Rubenstein, L.M.; Wahls, T.L.; Snetselaar, L.G. Change in Micronutrient Intake among People with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Adapting the Swank and Wahls Diets: An Analysis of Weighed Food Records. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3507. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103507

AMA Style

Titcomb TJ, Brooks L, Smith KL, Ten Eyck P, Rubenstein LM, Wahls TL, Snetselaar LG. Change in Micronutrient Intake among People with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Adapting the Swank and Wahls Diets: An Analysis of Weighed Food Records. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3507. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103507

Chicago/Turabian Style

Titcomb, Tyler J., Lisa Brooks, Karen L. Smith, Patrick Ten Eyck, Linda M. Rubenstein, Terry L. Wahls, and Linda G. Snetselaar. 2021. "Change in Micronutrient Intake among People with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Adapting the Swank and Wahls Diets: An Analysis of Weighed Food Records" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3507. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103507

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