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What Is the Impact of Energy Expenditure on Energy Intake?

Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 17, 24105 Kiel, Germany
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Academic Editor: Paolo Piaggi
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3508; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103508
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 2 October 2021 / Published: 5 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance and Body Weight)
Coupling energy intake (EI) to increases in energy expenditure (EE) may be adaptively, compensatorily, or maladaptively leading to weight gain. This narrative review examines if functioning of the homeostatic responses depends on the type of physiological perturbations in EE (e.g., due to exercise, sleep, temperature, or growth), or if it is influenced by protein intake, or the extent, duration, timing, and frequency of EE. As different measures to increase EE could convey discrepant neuronal or humoral signals that help to control food intake, the coupling of EI to EE could be tight or loose, which implies that some ways to increase EE may have advantages for body weight regulation. Exercise, physical activity, heat exposure, and a high protein intake favor weight loss, whereas an increase in EE due to cold exposure or sleep loss likely contributes to an overcompensation of EI, especially in vulnerable thrifty phenotypes, as well as under obesogenic environmental conditions, such as energy dense high fat—high carbohydrate diets. Irrespective of the type of EE, transient elevations in the metabolic rate seem to be general risk factors for weight gain, because a subsequent decrease in energy requirement is not compensated by an adequate adaptation of appetite and EI. View Full-Text
Keywords: total energy expenditure; energy flux; thermogenesis; appetite control total energy expenditure; energy flux; thermogenesis; appetite control
MDPI and ACS Style

Bosy-Westphal, A.; Hägele, F.A.; Müller, M.J. What Is the Impact of Energy Expenditure on Energy Intake? Nutrients 2021, 13, 3508. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103508

AMA Style

Bosy-Westphal A, Hägele FA, Müller MJ. What Is the Impact of Energy Expenditure on Energy Intake? Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3508. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103508

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bosy-Westphal, Anja, Franziska A. Hägele, and Manfred J. Müller. 2021. "What Is the Impact of Energy Expenditure on Energy Intake?" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3508. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103508

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