Next Article in Journal
Indole-3-Propionic Acid, a Gut-Derived Tryptophan Metabolite, Associates with Hepatic Fibrosis
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Cardiometabolic Health: An Energy Metabolism Perspective
Previous Article in Journal
Change in Micronutrient Intake among People with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Adapting the Swank and Wahls Diets: An Analysis of Weighed Food Records
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Review

What Is the Impact of Energy Expenditure on Energy Intake?

Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 17, 24105 Kiel, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo Piaggi
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3508;
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 2 October 2021 / Published: 5 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance and Body Weight)
Coupling energy intake (EI) to increases in energy expenditure (EE) may be adaptively, compensatorily, or maladaptively leading to weight gain. This narrative review examines if functioning of the homeostatic responses depends on the type of physiological perturbations in EE (e.g., due to exercise, sleep, temperature, or growth), or if it is influenced by protein intake, or the extent, duration, timing, and frequency of EE. As different measures to increase EE could convey discrepant neuronal or humoral signals that help to control food intake, the coupling of EI to EE could be tight or loose, which implies that some ways to increase EE may have advantages for body weight regulation. Exercise, physical activity, heat exposure, and a high protein intake favor weight loss, whereas an increase in EE due to cold exposure or sleep loss likely contributes to an overcompensation of EI, especially in vulnerable thrifty phenotypes, as well as under obesogenic environmental conditions, such as energy dense high fat—high carbohydrate diets. Irrespective of the type of EE, transient elevations in the metabolic rate seem to be general risk factors for weight gain, because a subsequent decrease in energy requirement is not compensated by an adequate adaptation of appetite and EI. View Full-Text
Keywords: total energy expenditure; energy flux; thermogenesis; appetite control total energy expenditure; energy flux; thermogenesis; appetite control
MDPI and ACS Style

Bosy-Westphal, A.; Hägele, F.A.; Müller, M.J. What Is the Impact of Energy Expenditure on Energy Intake? Nutrients 2021, 13, 3508.

AMA Style

Bosy-Westphal A, Hägele FA, Müller MJ. What Is the Impact of Energy Expenditure on Energy Intake? Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3508.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bosy-Westphal, Anja, Franziska A. Hägele, and Manfred J. Müller. 2021. "What Is the Impact of Energy Expenditure on Energy Intake?" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3508.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop