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Review

Dietary Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity: A Literature Review

1
Faculty of Health Sciences (Nutrition Sciences), University Fernando Pessoa, Rua Carlos da Maia 296, 4200-150 Porto, Portugal
2
EPIUnit—Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto (Institute of Public Health of the University of Porto), Rua das Taipas 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
3
Laboratory for Integrative and Translational Research in Population Health (ITR), Rua das Taipas 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
4
Department of Public Health and Forensic Sciences, and Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Panagiota Mitrou
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103447
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 23 September 2021 / Accepted: 24 September 2021 / Published: 28 September 2021
Several dietary interventions have been conducted to prevent/reduce childhood obesity, but most of them are known to have failed in tackling the obesity epidemic. This study aimed to review the existing literature on dietary interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity and their effectiveness. A literature search was conducted using PubMed Central®. Only articles published between 2009 and 2021, written in English, conducted in humans, and including children and/or adolescents (<18 years old) were considered. The majority of studies were school-based interventions, with some addressing the whole community, and including some interventions in the food sector (e.g., taxation of high fat/sugar foods, front-of-pack labelling) and through mass media (e.g., restrictions on food advertising for children) that directly or indirectly could help to manage childhood obesity. Most of the programs/interventions conducted focus mainly on person-based educational approaches, such as nutrition/diet education sessions, allied to the promotion of physical activity and lifestyles to students, parents, and school staff, and less on environmental changes to offer healthier food choices. Only a few trials have focused on capacity building and macro-policy changes, such as the adaptation of the built environment of the school, serving smaller portion sizes, and increasing the availability and accessibility of healthy foods and water in schools, and restricting the access to vending machines, for example. Overall, most of the intervention studies showed no consistent effects on changing the body mass index of children; they have only reported small weight reductions, clinically irrelevant, or no effects at all. Little is known about the sustainability of interventions over time. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatric obesity; children; dietary interventions; diet; prevention pediatric obesity; children; dietary interventions; diet; prevention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pereira, A.R.; Oliveira, A. Dietary Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity: A Literature Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103447

AMA Style

Pereira AR, Oliveira A. Dietary Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity: A Literature Review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103447

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pereira, Ana R., and Andreia Oliveira. 2021. "Dietary Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity: A Literature Review" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103447

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