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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Various Methods to Determine Added Sugars Intake to Assess the Association of Added Sugars Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy

1
Nutrition Impact, LLC, Battle Creek, MI 49014, USA
2
The Sugar Association, Inc., Washington, DC 20005, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092816
Received: 24 August 2020 / Revised: 10 September 2020 / Accepted: 11 September 2020 / Published: 14 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition, Education and Dietetics)
Different methods for determining the effect of added sugars intake among children and adults on meeting recommended nutrient intakes were compared using 24 h dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. Four methods were used to determine deciles of added sugars intake (as the percentage of total calories): 1 day intake, 2 day average intake, and individual usual intake (UI) determined with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the multivariate Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for calcium and vitamin D/above the Adequate Intake (AI) for potassium and dietary fiber for each decile of added sugars intake were assessed with the NCI method. Using regression analyses, added sugars intake deciles (by any method) in children were inversely associated (p < 0.001) with percentages below the EAR/above the AI of vitamin D, calcium, potassium, and fiber. In adults, added sugars intake deciles were inversely associated with meeting recommendations for vitamin D, potassium, and fiber. There were no significant between-method differences for regression coefficients for any nutrients investigated. Overall, these methods showed a similar association of added sugars intake with nutrient inadequacy/adequacy; therefore, method preference may depend more on practical reasons. View Full-Text
Keywords: added sugars; intake methods; micronutrient adequacy; the NHANES added sugars; intake methods; micronutrient adequacy; the NHANES
MDPI and ACS Style

Fulgoni, V.L., III; Gaine, P.C.; Scott, M.O. Comparison of Various Methods to Determine Added Sugars Intake to Assess the Association of Added Sugars Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2816.

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